The essay does not copy literally the book and article and is not the essay.
The essay cannot be the literature review, i.e. does not tell about books.
In the essay the material collected on a theme is systematised and generalised.
The essay consists of several parts:
· the title page (it is made out under educational institution requirements);
· the table of contents (maintenance) demands presence of numbers of pages on each section of the essay;
· the basic part consisting of heads;
· the conclusion;
· the list of the used literature.
In introduction speaks:
· why such theme is chosen, than it is important (the personal relation to a theme (a problem), than it is actual (the relation of a modern society to this theme (problem), what cultural or scientific value represents (from the point of view of researchers, scientific);
· what literature is used: researches, the popular scientific literature, educational, who authors… (The Cliche: “as the Material for an essay writing have served…”)
· of what the essay (introduction, kol-in heads, the conclusion, appendices consists. A cliche: “In introduction the idea (the purpose) essay is shown. Chapter 1 is devoted., in 2 head… In the conclusion the basic conclusions are formulated…”)
The basic part of the essay consists of the several sections gradually opening a theme. Each of sections considers any of the parties of the basic theme. Statements of positions are supported with the proofs taken from the literature (citing, the instructions of figures, the facts, definitions)
If proofs are borrowed the author of the used literature is is made out as a reference to the source and has a serial number.
References are made out in the bottom of the text below the line where the serial number of the reference and the given books or articles are specified. In the end of each section of the basic part the conclusion is necessarily formulated. (A cliche: “Thus. It is possible to make the conclusion, that… As a result it is possible to come to conclusion…”)
In the conclusion the general conclusions on the basic theme, prospects of development of research, own sight at the decision of a problem and at positions of authors of the used literature, on the consent or disagreement with them (very short) are formulated.
The literature list is made in alphabetic order in the end of the essay by certain rules.
The description of books
The author (). The title. – an edition place: Publishing house, year of the edition. – pages.
Pushkin of Ampere-second. Poems.-.: the alphabet, 1998. – 170 with.
The description of collections
The title. – an edition place: Publishing house, year of the edition. – pages.
The literature: Education, 1996. – 600?.
The description of articles
The author (). The title//the Name of magazine (newspaper). – Year. – number. – article pages.
Stages (plan) of work on the essay
- To choose a theme. It should be familiar and interesting. It is desirable, that the theme contained any problem or the contradiction and concerned a modern life.
- To define, which problem, a problem exists on this theme and a way of its decision. For this purpose it is necessary to transform the theme name into a question.
- To find books and articles on the chosen theme. (For middle classes – not less than 3 sources, for senior pupils not less than 5). To make the list of this literature.
- To make extracts of books and articles. (To pay attention to not clear words and expressions, to specify their value in reference books).
- To make the plan of the basic part of the essay.
- To write a draught variant of each chapter.
- To show a draught copy to the teacher.
- To write the essay.
- To make the message for 5-7 minutes, no more.