Unlike scientific articles, dissertations, the monographies having for an object reception of new knowledge during independent research and its introduction in a scientific turn by means of publication, the essay does not assume a statement of independent scientific results. Its problem – to generalise reached by others, independently to state a problem on the basis of the facts from the literature.
Apparently from told, the essay is not simple retelling read, and the serious work demanding, enough thorough readiness of the author.
Let’s consider process of work on the essay on stages.
First, very important correctly to choose a theme. The choice of a theme for one not that is not necessary (a theme the teacher), for others sets torture. It is possible to tell one, a theme it is necessary to take that about which you most of all know and for which the special literature is not necessary.
It should not be too the general, global as rather small volume of work (20-30 pages) will not allow to open it. At a theme choice it is necessary to take an interest, how much it is shined in the available scientific literature. For this purpose there are thematic catalogues of libraries and literature bibliographic indexes.
When the choice of a theme of the essay is made, it is necessary to start reading of the corresponding literature. Here it is necessary to distinguish actually scientific literature and publications of popular scientific character.
Distinctive lines of the scientific literature are presence of the spravochno-bibliographic device, the publication in editions of the academic institutes, large universities. Reading of the scientific literature, in comparison information, demands specific skills and approaches. At a meeting with not clear terms it is necessary not to be lazy to glance in dictionaries. There are special dictionaries of legal terms.
Correctly constructed plan of the essay serves as the beginning in work on an essay help to systematise a material, provides sequence of its statement.
The pupil makes the plan independently or by means of the teacher, taking into account a work plan. However at all variety of individual approaches to the essay plan traditional is following:
Chapter 1 (a full name of the head).
Chapter 2 (a full name of the head).
Chapter 3 (a full name of the head).
The Conclusion (or conclusions).
The List of the used literature.
Appendices (at the discretion of the author).
In the maintenance near to each of the listed points the page with which the given point begins in the essay text is underlined.
In introduction the theme urgency should be proved, the purposes of work and the basic questions which are supposed to be opened in the essay for object in view achievement are formulated, and also should be specified, with what use of materials work is executed – the short characteristic of the used literature from the point of view of completeness of illumination in it of the theme selected you is given. Besides, in introduction it is necessary to specify methodological base on which basis research will be constructed. The introduction volume should not exceed 1-1,5 pages.
In the basic part of work it is necessary to open full enough and convincingly all points of the plan, keeping logic communication between them and sequence of transition from one to another. Each section is recommended to be finished a short conclusion.
In the conclusion the material stated in the basic part is generalised, the general conclusions are formulated, it is underlined, that new personally for itself the author of the essay from work on it has taken out. Doing conclusions, it is necessary to consider the various points of view published in the literature on the problem stated in work, to compare them and to note, what of them imposes the author of the essay more. In all work, especially in introduction and the conclusion, there should be a personal relation of the author to opened questions. The conclusion on volume, as a rule, should not exceed introduction.
To state a material in the essay it is recommended the words, not supposing literal copying from references. Work should be written a competent literary language.
Reduction of words in the text is not supposed. Exceptions make well-known reductions and abbreviations.
The essay should be correctly and is accurately issued, the text (hand-written, typewritten or in computer execution) – legible, without stylistic and grammatical errors. Work is carried out on vertically located sheets. All pages of the essay, excepting the title page, are numbered by the Arabian figures. Number is put down above in the page centre. Essay volume on the average – 15-20 pages (that is 25-40 thousand printing signs) format ?4 (210 ? 297 mm), typed on the computer and filled from one (obverse) party. In a hand-written variant the quantity of pages is independently defined by the author of work to proportionally specified norm. Standard spaces of fields of typewritten sheet: top – 15 mm, bottom – 20 mm, left – 30 mm, right – 15 mm.
Registration of citations and references
Bibliographic references use: at citing; at loan of positions, statistical data, tables, illustrations; in need of sending to other edition where the question is more full stated.
In case of the reference to the statutory act its full name, the body which has accepted this certificate, time and a publication source is underlined. There are two types of footnotes. Most often footnotes are made out: [And, with.], where “And” – a source serial number in the literature list, – page in it. But sometimes it is required to make out interlinear footnotes. For registration of interlinear footnotes it is convenient to use option MS Word
Drawing up of the list of the used literature and sources
The general list used at a writing of the essay of the literature also should include not less than 10 sources located in alphabetic order of surnames of authors or titles if before them surnames of authors are not specified (for example, some manuals, collective monographies, collections). In structure of the list of the literature it is possible to allocate sections: Regulatory legal acts (are sorted by hierarchy or the alphabet); the special literature (it is sorted alphabetically); judiciary practice materials (it is sorted by hierarchy or alphabetically); sources of a network the Internet (it is sorted alphabetically).
In the list of the literature for each source are resulted: surnames and the initials of the author, the full name, a place editions (city), publishing house, year of the edition and quantity of pages which are designated lower case, that is small, the letter “with” with a point.
In the list of the used magazines and newspapers between article and edition names two virgules with the right inclination (//) are put.
The maintenance and registration of appendices
It is recommended to include a material which for various reasons is not resulted in the basic text of work in appendices: borrowed from the literature or independently made by the author of the essay of the table, the scheme, a drawing, the diagramme, a card, the nominal, thematic or geographical index, the dictionary of terms, photos, x-copies, drawings. Appendix pages continue through numbering of the essay. The appendix is numbered by the Arabian figures that it was possible to refer to it in the end of a corresponding phrase of the text.