Included here are the South Atlantic islands of Tristan da Cunha, Gough, Inaccessible and Nightingale.

Tristan-Goughian Wet Heath

In the absence of heather species (Ericaceae), Empetrum rubrum (Empetraceae) is the indigenous dominant of wet heath together with various sedges and grasses. Other important vascular plants include Apium australe and the endemic Acaena stangii (Rosaceae), while the ferns mainly include Blechnum penna-marina and the endemic Elaphoglossum laurifolium and E. succisifolium (Elaphoglossaceae).

Tristan-Goughian Mire

Hygrophilous bryophytes including Jamesoniella grandiflora, Rhacocarpus humboldtii and various sphagna (such as Sphagnum magellanica) are some of the more important peat forming species. Important vascular plants here include Tetroncium magellanicum (Juncaginaceae) and various sedges such as the endemic Scirpus sulcatus and S. thouarsianus (Cyperaceae).


Baird, D. E. et al. 1965. The biological report of the Royal Society Expedition to Tristan Da Cunha. 1962. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London, 249: 257-434.

Bergstrom, D. M. & Chown, S. L. 1999. Life at the front: history, ecology and change on southern ocean islands. Tree, 14: 472-477.

Wace, N. M. 1960. The botany of southern oceanic islands. The Royal Society Expedition to Southern Chile. Proceedings of the Royal Society, 152: 475-490.

Wace, N. M. 1961. The vegetation of Gough Island. Ecological Monographs, 34: 337-367.

Wace, N. M. 1965. Vascular Plants. In: Biogeography and Ecology in Antarctica. Eds. J. Van Mieghem, P. Van Oye and J. Schell. Dr Junk Publishers. The Hague.

Wace, N. M. & Holdgate, M. W. 1958. The vegetation of Tristan Da Cunha. Journal of Ecology, 46: 593-620.