Included here is the sub-tropical, volcanic island of Lord Howe situated in the Tasman Sea.

Lord Howean Rush Formations

Situated on a stretch of level wet sand between the forest and the beach occurs a dense growth of rushes dominated by Scirpus nodosus. Other species found in this zone include the endemic Lepidium howei-insulae (Brassicaceae) and various trailing plants such as Mucuna gigantea and Vincetoxicum carnosum.


Green, P. S. 1979. Observations on the phytogeography of the New Hebrides, Lord Howe Island and Norfolk Island. In: Plants and Islands. Ed. D, Bramwell. Academic Press.

Mueller-Dombois, D. & Fosberg, F. R. 1998. Vegetation of the Tropical Pacific Islands. Springer.

Oliver, W. R. B. 1911. The Vegetation and flora of the Lord Howe Island. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute, 49: 94-161.

Oliver, W. R. B. 1925. Biogeographical Relations of the New Zealand Region. Journal of the Linnean Society, London, 47: 99-140.

Paramonov, S. J. 1963. Lord Howe Island, A Riddle of the Pacific, Part III. Pacific Science, 17: 361-373.

Pickard, J. 1983. Rare and Threatened Vascular Plants of Lord Howe Island. Biological Conservation, 27: 125-139.