Included here is the island of Java, one of the Great Sunda Islands archipelago of Indonesia.

Javan Freshwater Swamp Forest

Most of the swamp forests have now disappeared from Java. Estimates suggest there were originally about 72,000 ha. This has now been reduced to about 7,700 ha, of which 2,600 ha are in conservation areas. They generally formed in depressions such as the craters of ancient volcanoes, or are associated with river flood plains. All were of the topogenous type while the deep rain-fed (ombrogenous) swamp forests so extensive on Borneo and Sumatra do not occur. Today the largest area of swamp forest in Java occurs at the Rawa Danau Reserve. Here the dominant trees are Alstonia spathulata, Barringtonia racemosa, Elaeocarpus macrocerus, Ficus retusa, Gluta renghas and Mangifera gedeba. Many of the trees have supportive structures associated with their trunks such as long winding buttresses or stilt roots, and probably reflect the fact that the soils are relatively unstable.  Species tend to to relatively few in numbers probably because few can tolerate the prolonged inundation. Other sites include Lobbok, which is said to be the largest peatswamp forest in Java and possibly the largest topogenous peatswamp in Indonesia.


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Whitten, T., Soeriaatmadja, R. E. & Afiff, S. A. 1997. The Ecology of Java and Bali. Oxford University Press.

Yamada, I. 1990. The changing pattern of vertical stratification along an altitudinal gradient of the forests of Mt Pangrano, West Java. In: The Plant Diversity of Malesia. Proceedings of the Flora Malesiana Symposium commemorating Professor Dr. C. G. G. J. van Steenis,  Leiden, August 1989. Eds. P. Baas, K. Kalkman and R. Geesink. Kluwer Academic Publishers.