Included here is the Japanese islands of Honshu, Kyushu, Hokkaido and the smaller islands of Gotto-retto, Tanega, Tsushima and Yaku.

Hokkaido Fens and Bogs

On Hokkaido’s Kushiro and Sarabetsu moors, two types of reed (Phragmites communis) fen have been identified. One is co-dominated by Carex miyabei and in the other by the endemic Carex augustinowiczii (Cyperaceae). The latter forms extensive tussocks often inhabited by Adenophora triphylla var. tetraphylla, Artemisia vulgaris var. kamtschatica and the fern Thelypteris palustris, while Calamagrostis langsdorffii, Hosta rectifolia, Sanguisorba tenuifolia var. alba, and the near endemic Solidago virgo-aurea var. yezoensis (Asteraceae) occur between the tussocks. With increasing development of acid peat, the near endemic grass Moliniopsis japonica (Poaceae) becomes the dominant species. This species has similar ecological requirements to Europe’s Molinia caerulea. Associated species include Eleocharis japonica, Pogonia japonica and the fern Osmunda cinnamomea.


Numata, M. (ed). 1974. The flora and vegetation of Japan. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company.

Numata, M., Miyawaki, A. & Itow  D. 1972. Natural and semi-natural vegetation in Japan. Blumea, 20: 435-481.