Included here is the Atlantic and Gulf states of the United States from New Jersey to Florida and west to southeastern Texas.

Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain Swamp Forests

These include the cypress-gum and white cedar forests. The most typical tree in the former is Taxodium distichum Bald Cypress, although T. ascendens Pond Cypress becomes the main species in the more sandy areas. Their buttressed trunks provide the archetype image of these forests. Other trees and shrubs include the endemic Fraxinus caroliniana (Oleaceae), Itea virginica (Iteaceae), Magnolia virginiana (Magnoliaceae), Nyssa ogeche, N. sylvatica var. biflora (Cornaceae) and Persea borbonia (Lauraceae). In some of the seasonally flooded areas in the southeast hardwood species such as Quercus lyrata and the endemic Carya aquatica (Juglandaceae) and Carpinus caraliniana (Betulaceae) become more conspicuous. The white cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides) forests are mainly associated with deep peat in the Middle Atlantic States. In some cases this species can account for up to 95% of the canopy cover. Associated shrubs include the endemic Ilex coriacea (Aquifoliaceae).


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