Included here is a zone that extends from the northwest and northern parts of the Iberian Peninsula (including the Pyrenees) north to include Great Britain and Ireland and on to the western shores of Norway as far north as the islands of Hitra and Froga. On the European mainland the Armorican Massif, the Aquitanian and Parisian Basins, the Central Massif, and most of the German lowlands are included.

Atlantic European Wet Woods

Sometimes referred to as carr these woods of wet and waterlogged areas are usually dominated by Alnus glutinosa (alder), Betula pubescens (downy birch) and various willows such as the local endemic Salix phylicifolia [England, Scotland and Ireland] (Salicaceae). Carr occurs throughout the Atlantic European BioProvince from southwestern Norway to northern Spain. The often-rich shrub layer typically comprises Frangula alnus, Crataegus monogyna, Ligustrum vulgare, Rhamnus catharticus, Viburnum opulus and can include a number fruit bearing bushes such as Ribes nigrum (black currant), R. rubrum (red currant) and R. uva-crispa (gooseberry). Field layers tend to be species-poor but may include Eupatorium cannabinum, Filipendula ulmaria, Iris pseudocorus, Solanum dulcamera, Symphytum officinale, or the fern Thelypterus palustris. Field bindweed (Calystegia sepium) may also cover many of the shrubs. In northern Spain additional field layer species may include Scutellaria minor, Sibthorpia europaea and the royal fern Osmunda regalis.

Atlantic European Mires

These may be acidic in the case of bogs where various bog mosses (Sphagnum) often dominate, or alkaline in the case of fens where various sedges and rushes usually comprise the main species. Mires are particularly well developed in the high rainfall areas of the western Atlantic. Typical bog species are Erica tetralix, Eriophorum angustifolium, Molinia caerulea, the insectivorous plant Drosera rotundifolium, and the widespread endemic Narthecium ossifragum bog asphodel (Liliaceae). Other endemics of bogs are rarely as widespread - the endemic bog moss Sphagnum skyense, for example, is confined to the Isle of Skye on the northwest coast of Scotland. Characteristic sedges and rushes of fens include Cladium mariscus, Carex flacca, Carex nigra, Schoenus nigricans, Juncus articulatus and Juncus subnodulosus. They also include a variety of distinctive herbaceous species like Caltha palustris, Epipactis palustris, Dactylorhiza incarnata, Filipendula ulmaria, Lathyrus palustris, Lychnis flos-cuculi, Lysimachia vulgaris, Lythrum salicaria, Peucedanum palustre and Thalictrum flavum. Another type of mire is the so-called rush pasture typically dominated by Juncus effuses or Juncus acutiflorus. An interesting endemic possibly encountered in rush pasture is the stange whorled caraway Carum verticillatum (Apiaceae), although it can also be found in Molinia mire


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