Included here is the Indus Plain comprising the Province of Sind (Pakistan), the plains of Punjab, the Thar Desert, Hariana, western Rajasthan and Northern Gujarat. In the hills, such as in the Aravalli Range, there are remnants of a once widespread deciduous forest dominated by Anogeissus pendula. It is commonly associated with either Acacia senegal in the drier zones or Acacia catechu in the more humid zones, but depending on the area other species may form co-dominants. Common associates include Barleria prionites, Grewia tenax, Maytenus emarginata, Sarcostemma acidum, Securinega leucopyrus, and the near endemic Dipteracanthus patulus (Acanthaceae). Other endemics may include Anogeissus sericea (Combretaceae).


Bhandari, M. M. 1978. Flora of the Indian Desert. Scientific Publishers Jodhpur.

Bhandari, M. M. 1979. Phytogeography of the tropical flora of the Indian Desert. In: Tropical Botany. Eds. K. Larsen and L. B. Holm-Nielsen. Academic Press.

Chaghtai, S. M. & Yusaf, M. 1976. The ecology of the native vegetation of Kohat, NWFP, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 8: 27-36.

Puri, G. S., Gupta, R. K., Meher-Homji, V. M. & Puri, S. 1989. Forest Ecology. Plant form, diversity, communities and succession. 2nd Edition. Volume 2. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. Ltd.