Included here is the area of southwestern Dahomey, southern Nigeria, western Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, most of Gaban and western Congo. Semi-deciduous forests are restricted but can be found, for example, in the Campo-Ma’an area, but the relative proportions of evergreen and deciduous elements vary from place to place. In the eastern parts, the forests are characterized by a discontinuous canopy with large open areas often covered by the regionally endemic herb Haumania danckelmaniana (Marantaceae) and the regionally endemic rattans Calamus deerratus, Laccosperma opacum and Oncocalamus mannii (Arecaceae). The irregular canopy trees include the endemic Dacryodes buettneri (Burseraceae) and a number of regionally endemic species such as Celtis tessmannii (Ulmaceae), Coula edulis (Olacaceae), Distemonanthus benthamianus, Pentaclethra macrophylla, Stachyothyrsus staudtii (Fabaceae), Lophira alata (Ochnaceae), Petersianthus macrocarpus (Lecythidaceae), Pterygota macrocarpa, Triplochiton scleroxylon (Sterculiaceae), Pycnanthus angolensis (Myristicaceae) and Tabernaemontana crassa (Apocynaceae).


Boughey, A. S. 1953. The vegetation of the mountains of Biafra. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London, 165: 144-150.

Boughey, A. S. 1957. Ecological studies of tropical coastlines I. The Gold Coast, West Africa. Journal of Ecology, 45: 665-687.

Cable, S. & Cheek, M. 1998. The Plants of Mount Cameroon. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Campbell, D. G. & Hammond, H. D. 1989. Floristic Inventory of Tropical Countries. The New York Botanical Garden.

Catinot, R. 1978. The forest ecosystem of Gabon: an overview. In: Tropical forest ecosystems. Natural Resources Research Vol. XIV. UNESCO

Hall, J. B. 1973. Vegetation zones on the southern slopes of Mount Cameroon. Vegetatio, 27: 49-69.

Hambler, D. J. 1964. The vegetation of granitic outcrops in western Nigeria. Journal of Ecology, 52: 573-594.

Keay, R. W. J. 1971. An example of a Sudan zone vegetation in Nigeria. In: World Vegetation Types.  Ed. S. R. Eyre. Macmillan.

Lawton, R. M. 1978. The management and regeneration of some Nigerian high forest ecosystems. In: Tropical forest ecosystems. Natural Resources Research Vol. XIV. UNESCO.

Morton, J. K. 1986. Montane Vegetation. In: Plant Ecology in West Africa. Ed. G. W. Lawson. John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Richards, P. W. 1963a. Ecological notes on West African vegetation. II. Lowland forest of the southern Bakundu Forest Reserve. Journal of Ecology, 51: 123-149.

Richards, P. W. 1963b. Ecological notes on west African vegetation. III. The uplands forests of the Cameroon Mountain. Journal of Ecology, 51: 529-554.

Tchout, M. G. P., Yemefack, M., De Boer, W. F. De Wilde, J. J. F. E., Van Der Maesen, L. P.J. Cleef, A. M. 2006. Biodiversity hotspots and conservation priorities in the Campo-Ma’an rain forests, Cameroon. Biodiversity and Conservation, 15: 1219-1252.

White, F. 1983. The Vegetation of Africa. UNESCO.