Included here are the forests of Hainan Island in South China. Semi-deciduous forests with a number of draught deciduous elements are mainly found in the lower hill areas, tablelands and coastal belt of western Hainan but with some in the tablelands of the north and east coast. They have canopies that can reach heights of 12 m but with some emergents reaching 15 m. Vertical structure varies and may include one or two tree layers, but the canopy is usually sparse with variable, discontinuous crowns. The canopy or upper tree layer is typically dominated by deciduous species with thick branches such as Croton laevigatus and the endemic Semiliquidamber cathayensis (Altingiaceae) and Terminalia hainanensis (Combretaceae). Other deciduous trees may include Kleinhovia hospita, Spondias pinnata and the endemic Tilia hainanensis (Tiliaceae). The lower trees and bushes, which are largely dominated by evergreen or semi-evergreen species, usually form clusters of crooked, often thorny branches. The ground layer is mainly composed of drought adapted, usually thorny evergreen or semi-evergreen plants, but the bush-grass layer is usually sparse.


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