Included here are the deciduous forests of the Andaman and Nicobar islands situated in the Bay of Bengal. These forests, which include trees that shed their leaves (either fully or partially) during the dry season, are mainly confined to undulating ground in the hills where the soil in comparatively dry. One of the most conspicuous and elegant trees is Pterocarpus dalbergioides (sometimes known as the Andaman red wood) can reach heights of 45 m. Associated common trees include Albizzia lebbeck, Arthrocarpus chaplasha, Canarium euphyllum, Diploknema butyracea, Parisha insignis, Pterocymbium tinctorium, Terminalia procera, Tetrameles nodiflorum and the endemic Ailanthes kurzii (Simaroubaceae). Some of these giant trees, such as Pterocarpus dalbergioides and Tetrameles nodiflorum, have huge buttressed roots. Below the canopy lies a middle striatum of trees growing to heights of up to 30m. These include Lannea grandis, Sageraea elliptica, Sterculia villosa, Semecarpus kursii, Diosporos pyrrhocarpus, Zanthoxylum budrunga, Garruga pinnata, Cratoxylon formosum, Pterospermum aceroides and the endemic Miliusa tectona (Annonaceae), while below this are a series of smaller trees such as Atlantia monophylla, Cleidon javonicum, Gelonium bafarium, Grewia disperma, Licuala spinosa, Limonia alata, Linociera terniflora, Ochna wallichii and Streblus asper. The undergrowth is much better developed than in the evergreen forest, comprising various shrubby species such as Actephila excelsa, Bridelia griffithii, Calamus viminalis, Glycosmis pentaphylla, Ixora grandiflorus, Licuala peltata, Malotus acuminatus and Rinorea bengalensis, All of these various layers within the forest are connected by an array of climbers and stragglers. Common amongst these are Acacia pennata, Delima sarmentosa, Sphenodesme unguiculata, Thunbergia laurifolia, Ventilago madraspatana and the endemic or near endemic Calamus andamanicus (Arecaceae) and Plecospermum andamanicum (Apiaceae). The herbaceous vegetation is composed largely of grasses such as Centotheca lappccea, Crytococcum exyphyllum, Dichanthium annulatum, Echinochloa crusgalli, and Paspalum conjugatum, together with a few herbs like Alysicarpus vaginalis, Nelsonia campestris and Peperomia pellucida.


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