Included here is New Caledonia, the Loyalty Islands and the Isle of Pines.

On New Caledonia these forests can be broadly divided into lowland and montane forests. The lowland component has a very mixed composition with many endemic gymnosperms such as Agathis lanceolata, A. ovata, Araucaria bernieri (Araucariaceae), Dacrydium araucarioides, Dacrycarpus vieillardii (Podocarpaceae) and Falcatifolium taxoides (Podocarpaceae).  The main angiosperm trees include endemics such as Calophyllum neocaledonia, Montrouziera cauliflora (Clusiaceae), Neoguillauminia cleopatra (Fabaceae) and species of the endemic genus Sleumerodendron (Proteaceae). Smaller under storey trees may include the endemic Alphitonia austrocaledonica (Rhamnaceae), but in other areas there are dominant stands of other endemics such as Nothofagus aequilateralis (Nothofagaceae), while in coastal areas the endemic Araucaria columnaris (Araucariaceae) often forms conspicuous stands, a species which is very close to the Norfolk Island endemic Araucaria heterophyllum. The montane forests typically include species of Acmopyle, Agathis, Araucaria (e.g. A. muelleri), Dacrydium, Libocedrus, Metrosideros, Nothofagus (e.g. N. codonandra), Podocarpus, Quintinia and Weinmannia. On lower slopes this may grade into a Gymnostoma deplancheana association, while on the steeper slopes a more open woodland with maquis undergrowth may be present. The dominant shrubs include endemics such as the bright green Arillastrum gummiferum (Myrtaceae) and grey green rosettes of Cocconerion minor (Euphorbiaceae). Species composition of these rainforest if strongly dependent on the soil types with many species confined to ultrabasic soils. Amongst these are many of the BioProvince’s palaeo-endemics including most of the endemic conifers. There are also a number of species confined to calcareous substrates including endemics such as Tieghemopanax crenatus (Araliaceae), Diospyros inexporata (Ebenaceae), Acalypha pulchrespicata (Euphorbiaceae), Cyrtandra mareensis (Gesneriaceae) and Serianthes lifouensis (Mimosaceae).


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