Included here is the Malay Peninsula roughly south of the line between the Kedah River near Alor Setar on the west coast and Songkhlia on the east coast. The northern boundary therefore roughly crosses the border between Malaysia and Thailand.

Malayan Mixed Lowland Dipterocarp Forest

These forests of the Malay Peninsula occur from sea level to an altitude of about 750 m. In Endau-Rompin they can be broadly divided into two types. One is characterized by Dipterocarpus and Shorea, and mainly occurs at altitudes below 250 m, and is common, for example, in the valleys of the Endau River and its tributaries. The other is characterized by Dryobalanus aromatica, which occurs normally at altitudes below 300 m; it is common, for example, in the northeast and eastern areas of the Kinchin and Lamakoh valleys. Both these forests contain massive trees with canopies up to 30 m high and emergents reaching 45-50 m, and have many common trees. The main dipterocarps are Dipterocarpus baudi, D. concavus, D. costulatus, D. crinitus, D. gracilis, D. kerrii, Shorea acuminata, S. blumutensis, S. maxwelliana, S. ovalis, S. paevifolia, S. pauciflora, S. singkawang and the endemic S. bentongensis (Dipterocarpaceae). Dryobalanops aromatica is distributed gregareously in various river valleys while the endemic Hopea johorensis (Dipterocarpaceae), has a more patchy distribution but is often found in treefall gaps. Other large trees include Artocarpus lanceifolius, Coelostegia borneensis, Dialium platysepalum, Dillenia excelsa, Dyera costulata, Endospermum malaccensis, Koompassia malaccensis, Parkia speciosa, Pouteria malaccensis, Scaphium macropodum, Swintonia floribunda var. penangiana and the endemic Sarcotheca laxa var. sericea (Oxalidaceae). Second tier species include Agostistachys borneensis, Aporusa microstachya, Elateriospermum tapos, Pimelodendron griffithianum, Horsfieldia superba, Knema furfuracea, Myristica iners, Xerospermum noronhianum and the endemic Dillenia albiflos (Dilleniaceae) and Schoutenia furfuracea (Tiliaceae). Palms are also significant components with Oncospermum horridula being the most common species. Others such as Arenga obtusifolium, Eugeissona tristis and Iguanura wallichiana are also common, while Johannesteijsmannia altifrons and Orania sylvicola are more localised. Pinanga distichathe and the endemic Rhopaloblaste singaporensis (Arecaceae) are more frequent in the river valleys. Among the many lianas, common large woody species include Agelaea macrophylla, Ancistrocladus tectorius, Artabotrys suaveolens, Fagraea ridleyi, Indorochera griffithii, Milletia sericea, Rourea mimosoides and Tetracera scandens. The ground layer tends to have a patchy appearence but normally includes herbs such as Curculigo latifolia, Forrestia griffithii, Labisia pumila, Mapania cuspidata, Pentaphragma horsfieldia, Scrotochloa urceolata and the endemic or near endemic Hanguana malayana (Hanguanaceae). The forest floor is also the habitat to various ferns such as Pleocnemia irregularis, Taenitis blechnoides and the endemic or near endemic Tectoria singaporeana (Aspidiaceae).


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