Included here is the sub-tropical, volcanic island of Lord Howe situated in the Tasman Sea. The forests can be broadly divided into lowland and hill forests.

Lord Howean Lowland Rainforest

These forests are generally characterized by the endemic Ficus columnaris (Moraceae) and Howea forsteriana (Arecaceae), while other large endemic trees include Guioa coriacea (Sapindaceae), and the endemic Pandanus forsteri (Pandanaceae) is frequent in gullies. Smaller endemic trees include Coprosma putida (Rubiaceae), Dysoxylum pachyphyllum (Meliaceae), Geniostoma petiolosum (Loganiaceae), Psychotria carronis (Rubiaceae) and Randia stipulosa (Rubiaceae), and the ancient Bubbia howeana (Winteraceae), Lianas are very common with the largest of these remarkable plants including Lyonsia reticulata and Marsdenia rostrata, but epiphytes such as the endemic epiphytic orchid Dendrobium moorei (Orchidaceae) are scarce. The undergrowth is composed of a variety of species including the endemic Exocarpus homaloclada (Santalaceae), Senecio insularis (Asteraceae) and the endemic fern Asplenium milnei (Aspleniaceae). Small trees, such as the endemic Celtis amblyphylla (Cannabaceae) and Rapanea platystigma (Myrsinaceae) dominate the exposed outer edges of the forest. Also in the lowland rain forest are two endangered Red Data Book species. These are Marrattia salicina (horseshoe fern), which is an endemic sub-species, confined to certain ledges and terraces, and Passiflora herbertiana subsp. insulae-howei (Lord Howe Island passion fruit) another endemic sub-species that grows as a low twiner. Other endemics found in the lowland forest include Sideroxylon howeanum (Sapotaceae).

Lord Howean Hill Forest

The endemic Acicalyptus fullagari (Myrtaceae) and Howea belmoreana (Arecaceae) are two of the main characteristic trees of these forests. Other endemic trees include Guioa coriacea (Sapindaceae) and Notelaea quadristaminea (Oleaceae) but most of the smaller trees found here such as Bubbia howeana are also found in the lowland forest. One exception, occurring mainly in the valleys, is the strange endemic Negria rhabdothamnoides (family?), which is representative of one of the island’s endemic genera. Tree ferns are uncommon but the endemics such as Alsophila robusta (Cyathaceae) is fairly common with Flagellaria indica and Malaisa scandens frequent and conspicuous. The shrub layer includes the endemic Metrsideros nervulosa, while damp banks support a variety of ferns including the endemic Dryopteris apiculis and Polystichum whiteleggei (Dryopteridaceae). Another endemic Polystichum (Polystichum moorei) occurs beneath overhangs and in caves. At elevations above 300 m, palms of the endemic genus Howea are replaced by the endemic palm Hedyscepe canterburgana (Arecaceae). Trees in this part of the forest also include the endemic Alyxia squamulosa (Apocynaceae), Evodia polybotrya (Rutaceae) and Olearia ballii (Asteraceae), whilst in among the damp rocks can be found the endemic fern Asplenium howeanum (Aspleniaceae) and Brachycoma segmentosa (Asteraceae).


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