Mediterranean Pinus brutia Forest

Forests dominated by Pinus brutia extend from Lebanon through southern and western Turkey, the Black Sea regions, Cyprus, Crete, and other Aegean islands, and range from sea level to about 1800 m. In fact, on Cyprus it is the only pine-species that descends to sea level. It has many traits in common with the more southerly Pinus halepensis, but is much more widespread. The rich undergrowth varies from place to place and includes a number of endemic or near endemic taxa like Acer obtusifolium (Aceraceae), Berberis cretica (Berberidaceae), Bromus syriacus (Poaceae), Centaurea cretica, Jurinea mollis subsp. anatolica and Lactuca cretica (Asteraceae), Cytisopsis pseudocytisus (Fabaceae), Origanum libanoticum, Origanum syriacum, Phlomis vicosa, Salvia triloba subsp. libanotica and Stachys distans (Lamiaceae).

Mediterranean Cupressus sempervirens Forest

Forests of Cupressus sempervirens var. horizontalis have been recorded in Anatolia, Crete, Cyprus, Jordan and Lebanon, and according to the fossil record were probably also in the Judean Mountains and elsewhere. They are normally confined to rocky ground and invariable co-dominated by species such as Acer obtusifolium (e.g. Cyprus), Acer orientale (e.g. Crete), Juniperus phoenica (e.g. Jordan) and Quercus calliprinus (e.g. Lebanon). Their under story species also display large variations but may include various endemic or endemic species such as Astragalus creticus (Fabaceae), Gonocytisus pterocladus (Fabaceae), Silene libanotica (Caryophyllaceae) and Stachys cretica (Lamiaceae).

Mediterranean Juniperus phoenicea Forest

Juniperus phoenicea forest has two principal habitats: coastal sands and high plateaus. On dunes they develop behind the first dune ridge where there is a degree of shelter from the maritime environment. Other characteristic species include Asparagus alhus, Clematis cirrhosa, Ephedra fragilis, Jasminium fruticans, Philyrea angustifolia, Pistacia lentiscus, Rhamnus alaternus and Smilax aspera. Inland forests occur on the Great, Middle and Anti-Atlas, but rarely exceed an altitude of more then 2200 m. At higher altitudes Juniperus phoenicea becomes mixed with J. thurifera, while associated species include Adenocarpus bacquei, Artemisia herba-alba, Buxus balearica, Carthamnus fruticosus, Fraxinus xanthoxyloides, Genista myriantha, Globularia alypum, Lavendula multifida, Rhamnus oleoides and Stipa tenacissima.


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