Included here is sub-antarctic Chile and a series of associated islands including the Falkland Islands, South Georgia Islands, South Sandwich Islands, South Orkney Islands and South Shetland Islands. The forests can be divided into deciduous and evergreen types.

Magellanian Deciduous Forest

On the mainland south of the magellanic steppe zone, deciduous forest extends from sea level to an altitude of about 500 m in sheltered areas. Nothofagus pumilio is the dominant tree at low elevations where there are well developed soils with good drainage, but in the less favourable areas where soil is more acidic or where there is a high water table, Nothofagus antarctica become the more dominant species. In some of the more well developed Nothofagus pumilio forests the canopy becomes so dense that shrub and herb layers are virtually absent, but where there is more light penetration species may include Adenocaulon chilense, Codonorchis lessonii and endemics or near endemics such as Macrachaenium gracile (Asteraceae), Misodendron punctulatum and M. quadriflorum (Misodendraceae).  The canopy in Nothofagus antarctica forests, on the other hand, is usually more open allowing rich shrub and herb layers to develop. Common amongst these are Berberis buxifolia, Embothrium coccineum, Osmorhiza chilensis, Uncinia lechlerian, and the endemic Vicia magellanica (Fabaceae). Open areas of both deciduous and evergreen forests are the characteristic locations of Chiliotrichus diffusum - Berberis buxifolia scrub where endemics such as Acaena ovalifolia (Rosaceae), Baccharis patagonica (Asteraceae), Calceolaria biflora (Calceolariaceae), Maytenus magellanica (Celastraceae) and Ribes magellanica (Grassulariaceae) can be found. Pernettya scrub occurs in some of the wetter areas where it may include the endemic Berberis ilicifolia (Berberidaceae). In some of the flatter areas where the water table approaches the surface, there are mesophytic grasslands, which are similar to steppe grasslands, but species such the endemic Carex magellanica (Cyperaceae)and Geum magellanicum (Rosaceae) give these grasslands a distinctive appearance. Where the water table reaches the surface, local bogs may form replacing the deciduous forest. These can be divided into Sphagnum bogs and Marsippospermum bogs. In the former Sphagnum magellanicum is usually the dominant species, but may be accompanied by endemics such as Astelia pumila (Asteliaceae), Carex magellanica (Cyperaceae), Gunnera magellanica (Gunneraceae), Pinguicula antarctica (Lentibulariaceae) and Tetronicum magellanicum (Juncaginaceae). In areas where the climate is slightly dryer Marsippospermum grandiflorum becomes the main species while frequent associates include endemics or near endemics such as Rostkovia magellanica (Juncaceae) and Schoenus antarcticus (Cyperaceae).

Magellanian Evergreen Forest

Towards the south and west of Fuegia the deciduous trees give way to evergreen forests. These can be roughly divided into Nothofagus betuloides forest and Pilgerodendron uvifera forest. The best stands of Nothofagus betuloides forest occur away from the coast on well-drained, peaty soil. The endemic Philesia magellanica (Philesiaceae) is locally sub-dominant, but in general the commonest associates include Lebetanthus myrsinites and the endemic Berberis ilicifolia (Berberidaceae) and Blechnum magellanicum (Blechnaceae) in the scrub layer, and Luzuriaga marginata (Smilacaceae), Senecio acanthifolius (Asteraceae) and various filmy ferns such as Hymenophyllum pectinatum, H. secundum and H. tortuosum (Hymenophyllaceae) in the herb layer. In coastal areas, the primitive flowering plant Drimys winteri becomes co-dominant with Nothofagus betuloides, while the shrub layer often incudes the attractive Desfontainia spinosa. Prior to human intervention, it is thought that there were also forests co-dominated by Drimys winteri and the endemic Maytenus magellanica (Celastraceae). The Pilgerodendron uvifera forests only occur in the very wet areas and typically have a ground flora dominated by Sphagnum moss, but may also include endemics such as Acaena pumila (Rosaceae) and Perezia magellanica (Asteraceae). Also in coastal areas the evergreenforests are usually fringed by scrub dominated by the endemic Fuchsia magellanica (Onagraceae), but both Ribes magellanicum and Pernettya mucronata may be locally dominant or co-dominant in these situations, while in some of the more exposed areas Hebe elliptica may form the main species. Grasslands can also be found here in the openings between woodland and scrub. Prominent species in these areas include the endemic Poa alopecurus subsp. faegiana and Deschampsia kingii (Poaceae).  The bogs in this zone are characterised by Sphagnum moss, but also typically include Oreobulus obtusangulus, Schoenus andinus, Senecio trifurcata and the endemic Donatia fascicularis (Donatiaceae).


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