Included here is the Atlantic and Gulf states of the United States from New Jersey to Florida and west to southeastern Texas.

Hardwood Forests

In the absence of fire the climatic climax vegetation over much of northern Florida and southern Georgia is thought to be a mixed deciduous and evergreen forest dominated by Fagus grandifolia and the endemic Magnolia grandifolia (Magnoliaceae) and several endemic evergreen oaks such as Quercus laurifolia and Q. virginiana (Fagaceae). Other endemic trees include Carpinus caroliniana (Betulaceae) and Prunus caroliniana (Rosaceae). But today these forests are confined to small refugia such as on river bluffs.


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Christensen, N. L. 1989. Vegetation of the southeastern coastal plain. In: North American Terrestrial Vegetation. Eds. M. G. Barbour and W. D. Billings.  Cambridge University Press.

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