Apart from the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plain, this zone includes a large part of the eastern United States. In the north it extends into southern Canada to include southeastern Ontario and southern Quebec, while in the south it extends to central Georgia, central Alabama, parts of eastern Texas and includes much of Arkansas. Its western boundary extends to Minnesota, eastern Iowa, the Ozark Plateau and the Quachita Mountains.

Known generally as the Southern Great Lakes Forest, it can be divided on the basis of species composition, into the western zone which includes north Michigan, north Wisconsin and north Minnesota, the southern zone which includes southern Michigan much of Ohio and Indiana, and part of Ontario, and the eastern zone which includes the lowland areas of New York parts of Vermont, Quebec and southern Ontario. However, there are a number of trees common to all three areas - endemics among these include Acer saccharum (Aceraceae) Tilia americana (Tiliaceae) Abies balsamea (Pinaceae) and Tsuga canadensis (Pinaceae).

Further information required.


Cooper, A. W. 1979. The natural vegetation of North Carolina. In: Contributions to the knowledge of flora and vegetation in the Carolinas. Eds. H. Leith and E. Landolt. VGI Zurich.

Estill, J. C. & Cruzan, M. B. 2001. Phytogeography of rare plant species endemic to the southeastern United States. Castanea, 66: 3-23.

Greller, A. M. 1989. Deciduous Forest.  In: North American Terrestrial Vegetation. Eds. M. G. Barbour & W. D. Billings. Cambridge University Press.

Qian, H. 1999. Floristic analysis of vascular plant genera of North America north of Mexico: characterization and phytogeography.  Journal of Biogeography, 26: 1307-1321.

Ricketts, T. h. et al. 1999. Terrestrial Ecosystems of North America - a conservation assessment. World Wildlife Fund, USA and Canada. Island Press, Washington.