There are extensive stands of the grass Hyperrhenia hirta in Anotolia, Crete, Israel and Syria. It either forms of grass-steppe mixed with Capparis spinosa var. aegyptia or a savannah-like formation in which trees of Ziziphus spina-christi are scattered throughout. The latter has a strong resemblance to an African savannah and although it is now mainly confined to the foothills bordering coastal plains, a series of lowland remnants suggest that it once occupied large areas of the Philistine Plain (Israel) before human interference and may represent a local climax community. Similar savannah-like landscapes are encountered in the Upper Jordan Valley. Some of the associated endemic species include Eryngium creticum (Apiaceae), Rhamnus palaestinus (Rhamnaceae) and Sideritis pullulans (Lamiaceae).


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