Included here is a small area of the Chaco or Gran Chaco in South America. Chacoan vegetation covers the vast plains of north-central Argentina, western Paraguay, southeast Bolivia and extends into Brazil along the a narrow strip parallel to the River Paraquay in Mato Grosso do Sul.

Within the Santafesiaian Chaco, on well-drained soils, are savannas characterized by an upper herbaceous layer of Elyonurus muticans accompanied by Chloris canterae, Pterocaulon subvirgatum and Setaria geniculata. Typical of the lower herbaceous layer is Cynodon dactylon together with Cienfuegosia drummondii, Eryngium coronatum and Gamochaeta subfalcata. In places there is a dense shrub layer of the endemic or near endemic Tessaria dodoneaefolia (Asteraceae). Trees, on the other hand, are vary sparse, but may include some typical Chaco species such as Geoffroea decorticans and Prospis affinis.


Anon. 1996. Habitats of South America. Institute of Terrestrial Ecology and Intitut Royal Des Sciences Naturelles De Belgique.

Prado, D. E. 1993. What is Gran Chaco vegetation in South America? I. A review. Contribution to the study of flora and vegetation of Chaco. V. Candollea, 48: 145-172.

Sarimiento, G. 1983. The Savannas of Tropical America. In: Ecosystems of the World 13 - Tropical Savannas. Ed. F. Bourliere. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company.