Included here is the Ryukyu Archipelago situated between Kyushu and Japan, and comprising Okinawa, Ishigaki, Iriomote, Tokuno-Shima, and the Amami and Tokara islands.

Ryukyuan Mangrove

Mangrove forests are well developed in the estuaries and lagoons of Iriomote and typically include Avicennia officinalis, Bruguiera conjugata, Kandelia candel, Lumnitzera racemosa, Rhizophora mucronata and Sonnerataia alba.

Ryukyuan Strand Communities

On raised coral reefs the main species include Limonium wrighteii on the seaward fringes followed by Crossostephium chinense, Hedyoyis biflora var. parvifolia, Osteomeles subrotunda, Zoysia tenuifolia, and the endemic Aster miyagii (Asteraceae) in the more inland zones. The sandy shores include Glehania littoralis and Ixeris repens in the pioneer zone, with Cassytha filiformis, Ipmoea pescaprae subsp. brasilense, Spinifex littoreus, Thuarea involuta and Vitex rotundifolia in the more stable inland areas.


Hosokawa, T., Tagawa, H. & Chapman, V. J. 1977. Mangals of Micronesia, Taiwan, Japan, the Philippines and Oceania. In: Ecosystems of the World 1 - Wet Coastal Ecosystems. Ed. V. J. Chapman. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company.

Numata, M. (ed). 1974. The flora and vegetation of Japan. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company.

Numata, M., Miyawaki, A. & Itow,  D. 1972. Natural and semi-natural vegetation in Japan. Blumea, 20: 435-481.