Danube Delta Saltmarsh

Salt tolerant vegetation forms extensive patches particularly in depressions in old dunes such as on the Caraoman, Letea, Saraturile and Zhebryansky ridges where saline conditions prevail. In the most saline areas only the two annuals Salicornia patula and Suaeda maritima tend to occur, but in slightly less saline areas Salicornia prostrata often becomes the main species. Common associates include Aeluropus littoralis, Aster tripolium, Hordeum hystrix, Limonium gmelini, Obione verrucifera, Parapholis incurva, Podospermum canum, Salsola soda and Trifolium fragiferum. In humid dune depressions with low salinity, the rushes Bolboschoenus maritimus or Juncus maritimus usually predominate with the latter being more tolerant than the former. Other species that may be encountered here, especially in association with Bolboschoenus, include Artemisia santonicum, Butomus umbellatus, Cyperus pannonicus, Odontites rubra and Sium latifolium.

Turkish Saltmarsh

Near the Kizilirmak River four saltmarsh zones have been identified. The first or seaward zone is dominated by monospecific stands of Carex capitellata. It extends for some 25 m and is inundated during most of the year. The second zone is dominated by mixed stands of Salicornia prostrata and Spergularia marina and extends for about 30 m. The third is dominated by monospecific stands of Artemisia santonicum and extends for about 35 m and the fourth or most landward zone by monospecific stands of Juncus littoralis extends for about 60 m. The third and fourth zones are only inundated during winter. Other species found in adjacent saltmarshes include Hordeum geniculatum and Plantago coronopus.


Apaydin, Z., Kutbay, H. G., Özbucak, T., Yalçin1, E., & Bilgin, A.  2009. Relationships between vegetation zonation and edaphic factors in a salt-marsh community (Black Sea Coast). Polish Journal of Ecology, 57: 99-112.

Hanganu, J., Grigoras, I., Stefen, Sarbu, I., N., Dubyna, D., Zhmud, E., Menke, U. & Drost, H. 2002. Vegetation of the Biosphere Reserve “Danube Delta”. Ministry of Waters and Environmental Protection, Romania. National Acadamy of Sciences of Ukraine, Directorate-General for Public Works and Water Management, The Netherlands.

Jager, E. J. Comments on the history and ecology of continental European plants. In: Taxonomy, Phytogeography and Evolution. Ed. D. H. Valentine. Academic Press.