Included here is Baluchistan. It includes part of southeastern Iran, western Pakistan, and southwestern Afghanistan. In topographic terms it includes the eastern outskirts of the Iranian Uplands to the Sulaiman Range in Pakistan, the Takht-i-Sulaiman Massif (the so-called Throne of Soloman), the Quetta-Pushin Plateau and the Taba Kakar Hills. It is generally mountainous, cut through with deserts and barren plains.

Northern Baluchistanian Salsola kali-Alhagi maurorum Salt Vegetation

Found in the arid ‘wastelands’ of the Quetta-Pishin districts this vegetation occurs on salt loam to loamy sand that can be salt-free to moderately saline. Other relatively common species are Atriplex dimorphostegia, Carthamnus lanatus, Eucalidium syriacum, Hordeum murinum, Plantago lanceolata, Poa annua and Veronica biloba. However, in places Salsola kali can be the main dominant. Less common species include Agropyron squarrosum, Artemisia maritima, Chrozophora oblique, Cotula aurea, Cousinia minuta, Cynodon dactylon and Torularia torulosa together with many of the species found in the Peganum harmala – Hordeum murinum-Poa annua association.

Northern Baluchistanian Kochia stellaris Salt Vegetation

This species poor community characterized by Kochia stellaris is found on variably saline soils that can be strongly sodic. The only other relatively common species is Torularia torulosa, but there may also be scattered plants of Diarthron vesiculosum and Plantago lanceolata.

Zangiloran Alhagi maurorum-Desmostachya bipinnata Salt Vegetation

Alhagi maurorum and Desmostachya bipinnata dominate areas of Zangilora where the sandy-loamy soils have a relatively high salt content. They also prefer low-lying habitats. Other common species include Artemsia herba-alba, Bromus tectorum, Calamagrostis pseudophragmites and Eremopyrum bonaepartis. Less common associates are Aegilps tauschii, Aeluropus macrostachyus, Astragalus subuliformis, Boissiera squarrosa, Brachypodium pinnatum, Bromus danthoniae, B. japonicus, Ceratocephalus falcatus, Conringia planisiligua, Conyza bonariensis, Cousinia minuta, Diarthron vesciculosum, Euphorbia falcata, E. granulosa, Filago pyramidata, Heliotropium dasycarpum, Lactuca serriola, Malcolmia african, M. scorpioides, Phalaris minor, Poa bulbosa, Scabiosa olivieri, Senecio desfontanei and Sophora alopecuroides.

Zangiloran Aeluropus macrostachyus-Artemisia herbs-alba Salt Vegetation

Highly saline soils provide one of the main habitat characteristics of this vegetation type, but the perennial grass Aeluropus macrostachyus is also characteristic of dry mountain slopes and sandy deserts. Other common species include Calamagrostis pseudophragmites, Halocharis violacea, Sophora alopecuroides and Veronica biloba. Less common associates include Acanthophyllum squarrosa, Alhagi maurorum, Boissiera squarrosa, Bromus danthoniae, B. tectorum, Ceratocarpus arenarius, Ceratocephalus falcatus, Desmostachya bipinnata, Elymus hispidus, Eremopyrum bonaepartis, Euclidium syraicum, Koelpinia linearis, Malcolmia africana, M. scordioides, Panicum antidotale, Peganum harmala, Poa bulbosa and Poa sinaica.

Zangiloran Malcolmia africana-Desmstachya bipinnata Salt Vegetation

This type of vegetation appears to be confined to the southern part of Zangilora and was recorded at an altitude of 1676 m. It is also found on better soils of moderate salinity that are protected from domestic grazing and human interference. Not surprisingly it supports more plant species than other Zangilora vegetation types. Common associates include Alopecurus macrostachyus, Bromus danthoniae, Carthamus oxyacantha and Haloxylon griffithii. Among the less common species are Achillea santolina, Arnebia inconspicua, Chrozophora tinctoria, Descurainia sophia, Halocharis violacea, Heliotropium europaeum, Heterocaryum subsessile, Kochia stellaris, Psylliostachys spicata, Salsola kali and Tamarix dioica.


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