Included here are various subantarctic islands such as the Auckland Islands, Antipodes Islands, Bounty Islands, Campbell Island, Macquarie Island and the Snares.

Subantarctic Islands Montane Megaherb Meadows and Feldmark

On Auckland and Campbell Island these upland areas are dominated by endemic megaherbs such as Anisotoma antipoda (Asclepiadaceae), Pleurophyllum criniferum, P. hookeri and P. speciosum (Asteraceae). The soils, which are composed of infertile mineral peat, provide habitat for other endemics such as Acaena minor subsp. minor (Rosaceae), Deschampsia gracillima, Poa breviglumis (Poaceae), Ranunculus pinquis (Ranunculaceae), Uncinia hookeri (Cyperaceae), and the endemic cushion plant Azorella macquariensis (Araliaceae) on Macquarrie Island. On the windswept higher parts of Macquarrie Island feldmark has developed in which Azorella macquariensis is the dominant vascular plant, but much of the island’s feldmark is bryophyte dominated with species such as Dictrichum strictum and Racomitrium crispulum.

Subantarctic Islands High Bulbinella Formations

On the more exposed summits, Agrostis subulata and Deschampsia gracillima join the endemic Bulbinella rossii (Asphodelaceae) as the dominant species, while among other upland species are endemics such as Abrotanella rosulata (Asteraceae), Colobanthus hookeri (Caryophyllaceae), Myosotis antarctica (Boraginaceae), Plantago aucklandica (Plantaginaceae) and Schizeilema reniforme (Apiaceae). In addition to Bulbinella rossii, Mausippospermum gracile can dominates the cold slopes. Other important components of these slopes on Campbell Island, for example, include Ranunculus subantarcticus, Cardamine subcarnosa and the endemic Hierochloe brunonis (Poaceae). Characteristic species of the flushed slopes are Centrolepis pallida, Rostkovia magellanica and the endemic Abrotanella spathulata (Asteraceae) and Gentiana antarctica (Gentianaceae).


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