Included here is Manchuria in northern China and Russia. It includes the southeastern part of the Khabarovski Krai including the middle and lower reaches of the Amur River, the Primorski Krai. In Russia it extends to include the Sihote-Akin Mountains on the east and Lake Khanka to the west of these mountains. The border then extends south to the Amur Gulf, the northern part of the Korean Peninsula and includes the basin of the middle and lower reaches of the Yalu River. In the north it includes the southeastern part of the Onon-Argun steppes in the Transbaikalia area together with the basins of the Uldza and Onon rivers and the foothills of the Khingan Mountains in northeastern Mongolia. In China the western boundary extends from the west of the Great Khingan Mountains east to Shenyank and then cuts across the Yalu River.

Manchurian Koelreuteria paniculata scrub

These scrublands are found on south-facing slopes along the coast of the southeastern part of the Liaodong Peninsula. They reach a height of up to 2.5 m. The few other shrubs include Celtis bungeana. Herb layer species typically include Allium macrostemon, Artemisia argyi var. gracilis, while less common are Dentranthema lavandulifolium, Pinellia ternata and the endemic or near endemic Viola mandshurica (Violaceae).

Manchurian Pinus pumila scrub

Pinus pumila forms mono-dominant scrub throughout northeastern Asia and is the most cold tolerant of the pine species. It mainly occurs at high altitudes greater than 1200 m and in this BioProvince can be found on Changbai-shan and Daxingan-ling where it normally forms a low growing scrub never reaching more than about 2 m in height. The few associated canopy species include Betula ermani, B. nana subsp. exilis and Juniperus davurica. Common understorey species include Aquilegia flabellata var. pumila, Empetrum nigrum var. japonicum, Hedysarum alpinum, Hierchloƫ alpina, Pedicularis labradorica, Polygonum ajanense, Saxifraga bronchialis and Tilingia ajanensis.


Kolbek, J., Srutek, M. & Box, E. O. 2003. Forest Vegetation in Northeast Asia. Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Richardson, S. D. 1977. Forestry in communist China. The John Hopkins Press.

Yang, X. & Xu, M. 2003. Biodiversity conservation in Changbai Mountain Biosphere Reserve, northeastern China: status, problems, and strategy. Biodiversity and Conservation, 12: 883-903.