Included here are the Indonesian Maluku Islands (formerly the Moluccas) including Ambon, Buru, Seram and Halmahera, and the Banda Islands.

Maluku Montane and Summit Vegetation

On Seram forests mainly dominated by Castanopsis buruana and Lithocarpus celebicus range in altitude from about 400 to 1400 m, and examples can be found on Gunung Kobipoto and Gunang Binaiya. Other trees typically include Agathis dammara, Coelostegia griffithii and Fagraea blumei. Lower montane zones of Gunung Binaiya are characterised by a large and distinctive species of Syzygium (possibly S. aqueum), while conifers such as Dacrycarpus imbricatus, Phyllocladus hypophyllus, Trimenia papuana and species of Podocarpus characterise the upper montane zones. At altitudes above 2400 m the forests become open and shrubby with species of Rhamnus, Rhododendron and Vaccinium together with the endemic tree ferns Cyathea binayana and C. pukuana (Cyatheaceae). These often form distinctive groves richly covered in epiphytic ferns. Small stands of so-called tree-fern savannas can extend up to the summit zones of Binaiya together with low stands of Vaccinium woodland. At the highest altitudes, from 2700-3000 m, these give way to mountain grasslands characterised by a number of endemic herbs such as Euphrasia ceramensis (Orobanchaceae), Pterostylis papuanum var. ceramensis (Orchidaceae) and Viola binayensis (Violaceae).


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