Included here is sub-antarctic Chile and a series of associated islands including the Falkland Islands, South Georgia Islands, South Sandwich Islands, South Orkney Islands and South Shetland Islands.

Above an altitude of about 600 m on Isla Grande the forests give way to alpine vegetation, and just above the timberline, this is mainly composed of cushion heath where Bolax gummifera forms the dominant cushion forming species. Between the cushions, species such as Gamochaeta spiciformis and Stipa rariflora occur, while the endemic or near endemic Saxifragodes albowiana (Saxigragaceae) and Tetrachondra patagonia (Tetrachondraceae) are virtually confined to these communities. With increasing altitude, the heath becomes more open providing habitat for Azorella selago and endemics such as Onuris alismatifolia (Brassicaceae), Saxifragella bicuspidate (Saxifragaceae), Viola tridentate (Violaceae) and in some of the more unstable areas Nassauvia pigmaea (Asteraceae). Intergrading with cushion heath are areas dominated by dwarf shrub heath in which Empetrum rubrum is usually the dominant species. Here additional endemics such as Grammitis magellanica (Polypodiaceae), Hymenophyllum falklandicum (Hymenophyllaceae) and Senecio darwinii (Asteraceae) can be found. At even higher altitudes, many of the Fuegian Mountains have extensive areas of gently sloping terrain covered by talus deposits. Much of this is devoid of vegetation, but there are occasional patches of feldmark often composed of species such as Moschopsis rosulata together with endemics like Nassauvia lagascae, N. latissima (Asteraceae) and Senecio humifusus (Asteraceae). In the Fuegian highlands south of the Azopardo-Fagnano Depression, there are frequent glacial seepage areas which carry distinctive vegetation sometimes inappropriately described as alpine meadow. Along the stream margins are mats of Caltha appendiculata and the endemic Abrotanella linearifolia (Asteraceae) amongst which grow other endemics such as Ourisia fuegiana (Plantaginaceae), Primula magellanica (Primulaceae) and Tapeinia obscura (Iridaceae), but where the substrate becomes more rocky or composed of coarser soil Cardamine glacialis and the endemic Hamadryas magellanica (Ranunculaceae) and Nassauvia magellanica (Asteraceae) become the major species. Prominent species in the more marshy areas include the endemic or near endemic Agrostis magellanica (Poaceae) and Rostkovia magellanica (Juncaceae).


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