Included here are the Talish Mountains and the Elburz Mountains extending in a crescent around the south and southwest parts of the Caspian Sea.

Hyrcanian Steppe and Xeric Dwarf Semi-Shrub Zone

Occupying an altitudes of between 1600-2300 m are steppe formations dominated by Festuca valesiaca, Koeleria cristata, Phleum phleoides, Stipa lessingiana and S. tirsa. Also characteristic of this zone are thorn-cushion communities of Astragalus aureus, A. lagurus and Onobrychis cornuta.

Further information required


Frey, W. & Probst, W. 1986. A synopsis of the vegetation of Iran. In: Contributions to the Vegetation of Southwest Asia. Ed. H. K├╝rschner. Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag.

Hedge, C. & Wendelbo, P. 1978. Patterns of distribution and endemism in Iran. Notes of the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, 36: 441-464.

Heshmati, G. A. 2007. Vegetation characteristics of four ecological zones of Iran. Journal of Plant Production, 1: 215-224.

Zazanashvili, N., Gagnidze, R. & Nakhutsrishvili, G. 2000. Main types of vegetation zonation on the mountains of the Caucasus. Acta Phytogeographica Suecica, 85: 7-16.

Zohary, M. 1971. The Phytogeographical Foundations of the Middle East. In: Plant Life of South-West Asia. Eds. P. H. Davies, P. C. Harper & I. C. Hedge. The Botanical Society of Edinburgh.

Zohary, M. 1973. Geobotanical Foundations of the Middle East. Volumes 1 & 2. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart & Swets & Zeitlinger, Amsterdam.

Zohary, M., Heyn, C. C. & Heller, D. 1980. Conspectus Florae Orientalis. The Israel Academy of Science and Humanities. Jerusalem.