Included here are the fourteen Atlantic islands of Cape Verde including Fogo, Santiago and Santo Antae.

Cape Verdean Upland Arid Pastures

These pastures mainly occur at altitudes above 1400 m on well-developed soils. The principal grass species include Hyparrhenia hirta, Melinis minutiflora and Pennisetum polystachyon, but scattered throughout are various shrubs such as the endemic Astericus vogelii (Asteraceae), Campylanthus glaber (Scrophulariaceae), Lavandula rotundifolia (Lamiaceae) and Micromeria forbesii (Lamiaceae). In some of the more rocky areas other endemics such as Echium stenosiphon, E. vulcanorum (Boraginaceae), Erysimum caboverdeanum (Brassicaceae), Globularia amygdalifolia (Globulariaceae) and Sonchus daltonii (Asteraceae) can be found, while the endemic Artemisia gorgonum (Asteraceae) and Euphorbia tuckeyana (Euphorbiaceae) are more characteristic of ancient lava flows and the endemic Helianthemum gorgoneum (Cistaceae) is dominant on pumice. Among the typical annual species are Salvia aegyptiaca, Trichodesma africanum and the endemic Paronychia illecebroides (Caryophyllaceae).

Cape Verdean Upland Humid Scrub

In the more humid northern areas near to Ribeira Grande there are scrublands characterized by endemic taxa such as Artemisia gorgoneum (Asteraceae), Echium stenosiphon (Boraginaceae), Euphorbia tuckeyana (Euphorbiaceae), Globularia amygdalifolia (Globulariaceae), together with Lantana camara, Lavendula dentata, Wahlenburgia lobelioides, and other endemic species like Phagnalum melanoleucum (family?), Sonchus daltonii (Asteraceae) and Umbilicus schmidtii (Crassulaceae). These shrublands seem to represent a climax community but uncontrolled grazing and uprooting plants have degraded much.

Cape Verdean High Altitude and Summit Vegetation

Above altitudes of about 700 m the plant formations are largely characterized by the endemic taxa Diplotaxis vogelli (Asteraceae), Forsskaolea procridifolia (Urticaceae), Kickxia elegans subsp. dichondrifolia (Scrophulariaceae), Polycarpaea gayi (Caryophyllaceae), and perennial grasses such as Heteropogon contortus.  But these formations include many more endemic plants with nine recorded for the summit of Pico of Fogo (2800-2829 m) alone. These are Centaurium tenuiflorum (Gentianaceae), Conyza feae, C. varia, Diplotaxis hirta, Phagnalon melanoleucum (Asteraceae), Paronychia illecebroides (Caryophyllaceae), Periploca laevigata subsp. chevalieri (Apocynaceae), Satureja forbesii (Lamiaceae) and Verbascum crystolithicum (Scrophulariaceae). Other endemic taxa at or above 2400 m on the Pico and/or on the Caldeira rim on Fogo include Campanula bravensis (Campanulaceae), Echium vulcanorum (Boraginaceae), Erysimum caboverdeanum (Brassicaceae) and Lavendula rotundifolia (Lamiaceae).


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