Included here is the southeastern part of the Arabian Peninsula including Oman and the eastermost parts of the United Arab Emirates.

Omanian Upland Acacia-Commiphora Woodland

In the Dhofor Mountains these include Acacia tortilis and various Commiphora species such as C. foliaceae, C. gileadensis and C. habessinica. Other woody associates include several endemic or near endemic species like Acridocarpus orientalis (Malpighaceae), Anogeissus dhofarica (Combretaceae), Boscia arabica (Capparaceae), Ceratonia oreothauma subsp. oreothauma (Fabaceae), Maytenus dhofarensis (Celastraceae), Jatropha dhofarica (Euphorbiaceae) and Prunus arabica (Rosaceae).

Omanian upland Juniperus excelsa subsp. polycarpus Woodland

This juniper is found from Turkey to India but on the Arabian Peninsula it is confined to isolated population on Jebel Akhdar in the northern mountains of Oman. At high altitudes above about 2400 m it is the dominant species forming open woodlands, but at lower levels it is often co-dominant with Olea europaea. The two most common associates are the perennial Cymbopogon schoenanthus and the near endemic Euryops arabicus (Asteraceae). The few other associates include Daphne mucronata, Monotheca buxifolia and the near endemic Lonicera aucheri (Caprifoliaceae).


Fisher, M. & Gardner, A. S. 1995. The status and ecology of the Juniperus excelsa subsp. polycarpos woodland in the northern mountains of Oman. Vegetatio, 119: 33-51.

Fisher, M., Ghazanfar, S. A. & Spalton, A. 1999. The Natural History of Oman. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden.

Ghazanfar, S. A. & Fisher, M. 1998. Vegetation of the Arabian Peninsula. Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Miller, A. G. & Nyberg, J. A. 1991. Patterns of endemism in Arabia. Flora et Vegetatio Mundi, 9: 263-279.

Radcliffe-Smith, A. 1980. The vegetation of Dhofar. Journal of Oman Studies, Special Report No. 2: 59-86.

Zohary, M., Heyn, C. C. & Heller, D. 1980. Conspectus Florae Orientalis. The Israel Academy of Science and Humanities. Jerusalem.