Included here is New Zealand (North and South islands), Stewart Island and a multitude of smaller islands.

Neozeylandic Nothofagus Subalpine Forest

These forests like their lowland counterparts are distinguished by the dominance of one of more species of Nothofagus, but the endemic Nothofagus solandri var. cliffortioides (Nothofagaceae) is frequently the most dominant species. They can be found in various upland areas including the Volcanic Plateau, Tararua Mountains, Mount Te Aroha and Mount Stokes, but their species composition vary according to moisture levels with rainfall varying from 100-750 cm per year. In dry forest on the Volcanic Plateau, the undergrowth is fairly open. The shrubs and small trees include various endemic species such as Coprosma pseudocuneata (Rubiaceae) and Phyllocladus alpinus (Phyllocladaceae). Ground level flora includes mats of the endemic Hymenophyllum multifidum (Hymenophyllaceae) and various sedges such as Uncinia uncinata. In wetter forest, like these of the Ruahine Mountains, the undergrowth is more species-rich and typically includes more distinctive moss-carpets and moss-cushions including species of Dicranoloma. Ferns are also conspicuous with species like the endemic Hymenophyllum villosum (Hymenophyllaceae).

Neozeylandic Phyllocladus alpinus Subalpine Forest

Mountain forest dominated by the endemic Phyllocladus alpinus (Phyllocadaceae) occurs on the Volcanic Plateau, north of Mount Tongariro, the upper Waimarino Plain, Hauhungatahi and other places. Other trees may include some or all of the podocarps and the endemic Libocedrus bidwillii (Cupressaceae). Canopy heights can reach about 6 m. The ground layer species typically include Astelia cockaynei and the endemic fern Hymenophyllum multifidum (Hymenophyllaceae), but a multitude of other endemic plants may be encountered including Coprosma microcarpa (Rubiaceae), Hebe traversii (Plantaginaceae), Pittorsporum divaricatum (Pittorsporaceae) and Rubus schmidelioides var. subpauperatus (Rosaceae).

Neozeylandic Libocedrus bidwillii Subalpine Forest

These forests are usually dominated by the endemic Libocedrus bidwillii (Cupressaceae) with its distinctive erect habit and pyramidal crowns, but Podocarpus hallii may also be very important and dominate in places. They occur in the sub alpine belts of northwestern, western and eastern districts of South Island and on Mount Egmont and the Volcanic Plateau of North Island. Associated small trees and shrubs include a number of endemic species such as Dacrydium cupressinum (Podocarpaceae) and trunkless forms of the endemic tree fern Dicksonia lanata (Dicksoniaceae). In some places the impressive endemic ‘tuft-tree’ Cordyline indivisa (Laxmanniaceae) is abundant. The trunks of many trees, such as the endemic Griselinia littoralis (Griseliniaceae), become covered in epiphytic ferns, such as the endemic Hymenophyllum villosum (Hymenophyllaceae), and mosses, such as the yellow-green cushions of Dicranoloma billardieri. A number of seedlings and young tree are also epiphytic. These include Nothopanax sinclairii and the endemic Coprosma lucida var. angustifolia (Rubiaceae), and in some cases these can kill and replace their host.


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