Included here is Myanmar previously known as Burma.

Northern Myanmar Subtropical Hill Jungle

At about 900 m the tropical rainforest slowly gives way to subtropical jungle, which is recognized by its smaller trees and increasing presence of oaks, chestnuts, laurels, tree ferns, palms (mainly climbing species), bamboos and pandanas. There is also a corresponding decline in the numbers of strangling figs. The characteristic tree species include Aesculus assamicus, Albizzia vernayana, Bauhinia variegata, Betula alnoides, Carpinus viminea, Castanopsis argentea, Engelhardtia spicata, Illicium cambodianum, Lithocarpus viridus, Litsaea brachypoda, Magnolia pterocarpa, Manlietia caveana, Michelia punduana, Talauma hodgsoni, Tetrameles nudiflora, Ulmus lanceaefolia and the endemic Acer chionophyllum, A. pinnatinervium (Aceraceae) and Eriobotrya platyphylla (Rosaceae). Below the canopy is an under storey of shrubs including Buddleja asiatica, Daphne papyracea, Eurya chinensis, Rubus indotibetanus, Stryrax serrulatus, Viburnum cylindrium and the endemic Brassaiopsis trilobata (Araliaceae) and Symplocos araioura (Symplocaceae). The trees support a wealth of climbers and lianas such as Gelsemium elegans Jasminum pericallianthum, Kudsura heteroclita, and Lonicera hildebrandi, together with endemics like Illigera nervosa (Hernandiaceae) and Stachyurus cordatula (Stachyuraceae). In these forests epiphytes are also more abundant than in the tropical zones including several endemic species such as the epiphytic rhododendrons Rhododendron dendricola and R. taronense (Ericaceae). Among the many notable herbaceous species are the spectacular ground orchids such as Cypripedium villosum and the endemic Paphiopedium wardii (Orchidaceae). Other endemic species associated with these jungles include Agapetes adenobotrys, A. pubiflora (Ericaceae), Brachytoma wardii (family?), Lactuca gracilipetiolata (Asteraceae), Lasianthus wardii (Rubiaceae), Maesa marianae (Myrsinaceae), Ophiorrhiza lignosa (Rubiaceae), Saurauja subspinosa (Actinidaceae), Strobilanthes stramineus (Acanthaceae), Vernonia adenophylla (Asteraceae) and Wickstroemia floribunda (Thymelaeaceae).

Northern Myanmar Subtropical Montane Pine Forest

Between about 600 m and 2000 m above the Ngawchang Valley between Htawgaw and Gangfang the forests are dominated by pine and oak. The pine is Pinus insularis while the associated oaks include Quercus griffithii, Q. incana and Q. serrata. Among the many substorey shrubs are Dipentodon sinicus (the sole representative of the family Dipentodonaceae), Gaultheria griffithiana, G. yunnanensis, Litsaea euosma, L. forrestii, L. moupinensis, Pieris ovalifolia, Vernonia clivorum, Wendlandia speciosa, and the endemic Vernonia adenophylla (Asteraceae). In some of the less exposed areas and in ravines where Pinus insularis is less dominant, many other tree species may be encountered including Acer laevigatum, Alnus nepalensis, Altingia excelsa, Elaeocarpus dubius, Podocarpus neriifolia, Prunus cerasoides, Schima argentea, together with various endemic species such as Gordonia axillaris (Theaceae), Rhodoleia forrestii (Rhodoleiaceae) and Wightia alpinii (Scrophulariaceae). The shrubs in these sheltered areas include Aucuba humalaica, Berberis bicolor, Clethra delavayi, Conylopsis manipurensis, Lucula intermedia, Mahonia lomariifolia, Microtropis discolor and several endemics including Berberis incrassata (Berberidaceae), Dendropanax burmanicus (Araliaceae) and Sporoxeia sciadophyllum (Melastomataceae). Climbers tend to be small but quite numerous - typical species include Mezoneurum cucullatum, Prenanthes volubilis and Sabia ritchiae. Epiphytes, on the other hand, are few and inconspicuous being chiefly ferns and small orchids.  Also very different from the hill jungle is the distinctive herbaceous ground flora, which includes species that hardly occur anywhere else in North Myanmar. These include Aeginetia indica, Anemone begoniifolia, Anisodenia pubescens, Euphorbia cyanophylla, Gentiana cephalantha, Gerbera piloselloides, Inula cappa, Lilium bakerianum, L. ochraceum var. burmanicum, Primula denticulata, Senecio densiflora and the endemic orchid Paphiopedilum wardii. (Orchidaceae).

Northern Myanmar Warm Temperate Montane Rainforest

Above the pine forest at about 2000 m there is a gradual change from tropical to temperate conditions and evergreen forest gives way to deciduous forest. Here there is a well-marked summer and winter with occasional frosts and snow. The characteristic trees are Alnus nepalensis, Betula cylindrostachya, Bucklandia populnea, and for the first time rhododendrons make their appearance. These include Rhododendron stenauulum and the two endemic species R. eriogynum and R. kyawi (Ericaceae). A particular characteristic of this zone is the large number of epiphytic shrubs including several rhododendrons and species of Aeschynanthus, Agapetes, Ficus and Pentapterygium. Other epiphytes include the endemic Begonia hymenophylloides (Begoniaceae) and the large stem-clasping semi-epiphyte Wightia alpinii (Scrophulariaceae) that is also endemic. The woody climbers are mainly northern genera like Clematis and Lonicera but climbing palms (Calamus and Daemonorops) are locally common, while herbaceous species include several members of Asteraceae like Cucubalus bacciferus Mikania scandans, Senecio scandans and the endemic Prenanthes volubilis (Asteraceae). Compared with the densely vegetated forest below herbaceous flowering plants are more frequently, and include many northern genera such as Anemone, Oxalis, Primula, Ranunculus and Viola, but some of the species, such as Primula dictyophylla (Primulaceae) are endemic. Other endemics associated with these forests are Aeschynanthus wardii (Gesneriaceae), Aster helenae (Asteraceae), Camelia wardii (Theaceae), Coelogyne ecarinata (Orchidaceae), Dactylicapnos grandifoliata (Fumariaceae), Diplycosia alboglauca and D. pauciseta (Ericaceae), Gamblea longipes (Araliaceae), Ixora kingdon-wardii (Rubiaceae), Leycesteria insignis (Caprifoliaceae), Litsaea brachypoda and L. cuttingiana (Lauraceae), Peliosanthes longibracteata (Liliaceae), Photinia myriantha (Rosaceae), Pygeum cordatum (Rosaceae), Senecio pentanthus (Asteraceae), Sorbus paucinervia (Rosaceae), Syzygium stenurum (Myrtaceae) and Viburnum cuttingianum (Caprifoliaceae).

Northern Myanmar Cool Temperate Montane Rainforest

At heights above 2000 m a cool temperate forests starts to develop characterized by the appearance of many large shrubby rhododendrons. In fact, this flora has more in common with the Himalayas than it does with the mountainous areas of the Indo-Malayan region. The more common rhododendrons include R. bullatum, R. cringerum, R. decorum, R. neriiflorum, R. panikimense together with endemic species such as R. butyricum and R. magnificum (Ericaceae). Accompanying these are many broad-leafed deciduous trees including ash, birch, cherries, laurels, maples and species of Schima, Sorbus, Gordonia and Tetracentrum. There is also a wealth of shrubs especially in the more open areas including several endemic species such as Agaptes pseudo-griffithii, A vernayana (Eriaceae), Berberis incrassata (Berberidaceae), Eurya urophylla, E. wardii (Theaceae), Lindera vernayana, L. wardii (Lauraceae), Sorbus apiciden and S. deter-ibilis (Rosaceae). The herbaceous flora of these open places includes the endemic Primula burmanica (Primulaceae). Other endemics associated with these forests include Acer chloranthum (Aceraceae), Eriobotrya wardii (Rosaceae), Euonymus burmanica (Celastraceae), Ilex cyrtura, I. wardii (Aquifoliaceae), Rhododendron agapetum, R. insculptum, R. taggianum (Ericaceae), Rubus chaetocalyx, R. wardii (Rosaceae)and Sporoxeia sciadophylla (Melastomataceae).

Northern Myanmar Mixed Temperate Montane Forest

These forests form a narrow belt between 2500 m and 2800 m and represent a transition forest between the broad-leafed forests below and the silver fir forests above. They are characterized by a mixture of broad-leafed trees (both evergreen and deciduous), and conifers. In fact, the zone is a biodiversity hotspot for the former with many cherries, magnolias, maples, oaks, rhododendrons and so on. Typical species include Acer wardii, Lithocarpus pleiocarpus, L. xylocarpus, Magnolia rostrata, Magnolia mollicomata, Prunus cerasoides, Quercus lamellosa, Tetracentron sinense and the endemic Prunus kingdonwardii (Rosaceae). There are also several Ilex species including I. dipyrina, I. yunnanensis and two endemic species I. burmanica and I. melanotricha. (Aquifoliaceae). One of the characteristic rhododendrons is R. genestierianaum, which with its tiny plum-purple flowers and willow-like leaves, snowy white beneath, is unlike any other rhododendron. Others include the endemic epiphytic, yellow flowered shrubs R. butyricum and R. seinghkuense. Conifers include Larix griffithii, Picea brachytyla and surprisingly Taiwania cryptomerioides, which was previously known only from Taiwan and then later from southeast Yunnan. This discontinuous distribution with some 2000 miles of apparently suitable country separating the Taiwan and Yunnan populations indicate that it is probably a geologically ancient species  - a living fossil - and that its ancient distribution was much wider than it is today. Other endemic species associated with these forests include Acer taronense (Aceraceae), Berberis hypoherina (Berberidaceae), Photinia rufa (Rosaceae), Rhododendron vesiculiferum (Ericaceae), Sorbus paucijuga and S. verticillata (Rosaceae). 

Northern Myanmar Silver Fir Montane Forest

Dominated by Abies fargesii these forests form a belt extending between about 2800 m - 3500 m where the winters are hard and snow lies for a month or more each year. From a distance they look like mono-specific stands of fir, but closer inspection reveals a rich under storey of colourful rhododendrons including R. arizelum, R. sidereum, R. sino-grande and various endemics such as R. beanianum, R. imperator, R. myrtilloides and R. pruniflorum (Ericaceae). Other small trees are Corylus ferox and the endemic Sorbus wardii (Rosaceae). There are few climbing plants or epiphytes except mosses, but the herbaceous ground flora can be very rich especially in the more open areas. Primulas are particularly numerous with several endemic species such as Primula eucyclia and P. siphonanthes (Primulaceae). Other endemic species found here include Berberis burmanica (Berberidaceae), Leptodermis wardii (Rubiaceae) and Gaultheria minuta (Ericaceae).

South Myanmar Montane Forest

Montane forests in this BioProvince can be found on the Arakan Yomas Mountains and the Chin Hills on the west coast of Myanmar. The area is described as having a tropical wet climate. Up to an elevation of about 1000 m the canopy dominants include Bauhinia variegata, Derris robusta, Lagerstroemia speciosa and species of Ficus. These typically support a variety of lianas with Congea tomentosa and Mucuna pruriens being two of the main species. At elevations ranging from about 1000-21000 m these forests give way to mixed evergreen forest of oak (Quercus) with species of Castanopsis, Eriobotrya, Eugenia, Saurauia and Schima. Above 2000 m, Himalayan elements become conspicuous including Alnus nepalensis, Betula alnoides and species of Carpinus, Prunus, Pyrus and Torreya. Oak (mainly Quercus xylocarpus) become dominant again at altitudes ranging from 2400-2750 m, but higher than this Rhododendron arboreum and Quercus semecarpifolia become the main species. Many of these high altitude forests are shrouded in clouds and could be described as cloud forests. They support a wealth of epiphytic species; common among these are orchid taxa such as Dendrobium and Pleione, species of Aeschynanthes and Agapetes and more surprisingly Rhododendron cuffeanum. Above 3000 m shrubby vegetation predominates comprising species such as Hypericum patulum and Rhododendron burmanicum, while herbaceous elements include species of Aconitum, Lactuca, Pedicularis and Veronica.


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