Included here is most of the Iberian Peninsula.

Iberian Pinus pinea Forest

Stone pine Pinus pinea, like maritime pine, is largely coastal and has its distribution centered on the Iberian Peninsula. However, it also occurs in the lower montane zones where there is slightly more precipitation. Forests of Pinus pinea tends to grow on richer soils and usually have well-developed shrub and field layers. Among the more typical shrubs is Clematis flammula, Cistus albidus, Cistus salvifolius, Daphne gnidium, Hedera helix, Pyracantha coccinea, Rubia peregrina and Ulex europaeus, while the field layer commonly includes Lathyrus clymenum, Linum perenne and the orchids Cephalanthera longifolia and Neotinea intacta. Extensive stone pine forests occur, for example, in the Algarve, which has the distinction of being the most southwesterly region of Europe. Here the scrub layer also includes the elegant white flowered broom Lygos monosperma, together withseveral endemic species such as Anchusa calcarea (Boraginaceae), Cistus libanotis and Tuberaria major (Cistaceae).

Iberian Pinus sylvestris Forest

Scots Pine Pinus sylvestris forms extensive forests in the Iberian mountains being particularly well developed in the Central Sierras. Here the under scrub typically includes Adenocarpus telonensis, Erica arborea, Genista florida and Juniperus communis. These forests provide habitat for a variety of endemic species including Centaurea ornata and Doronicum carpetanum (Asteraceae), Dianthus laricifolius (Caryophyllaceae), Erodium carvifolium (Geraniaceae), Fritillaria hispanica (Liliaceae), Galium broterianum (Rubiaceae), Hispidella hispanica (Asteraceae), Linaria nivea and Linaria triornithophora (Scrophulariaceae), Ranunculus bulbosus subsp. gallecicus (Ranunculaceae).

Iberian Abies pinsapo Forest

These forests, dominated by the relict, endemic Spanish fir Abies pinsapo (Pinaceae), are now confined to a few montane sites around Ronda in southern Spain. They are thought to be remnants of a once much more extensive montane forests in Andalusia. The shrub layer usually includes Astragalus granatensis, Bupeurum spinosum, Cistus albidus, Erinacea anthyllis, Lonicera etrusca, Ononis reuteri, Phillyrea latifolia, Phlomis purpurea, Quercus fruticosa, Ulex parviflora, and the endemic Berberis hispanica (Berberidaceae), while the herbaceous elements typically comprise Colchicum triphyllum and the endemic Hyacinthoides hispanica (Hyacinthaceae).


Gómez-Campo, G., Bermúdez-Castro, L., Cagiga, M. J. & Sánchez-Yélamo, M. D. 1984. Endemism in the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands. Webbia, 38: 709-714.

Polunin, O & Smythies, B. E. 1973. Flowers of South-West Europe - a field guide. Oxford University Press.

Polunin, O. & Walters, M. 1985. A guide to the vegetation of Britain and Europe. Oxford University Press.

Smythes, B. E. 1984. Flora of Spain and the Balearic Islands - Checklist of vascular plants. Englera 3(1). Veroffentlichungen aus dem Botanischen Garten und Botanischen Museum. Berlin - Dahlem.