Carpathian Beech Forest

Beech (Fagus sylvatica) woods form the natural climax over much of Central Europe where the soils are relatively dry and can extend well into the uplands in the more southern zones. In Carpathian beech woods endemics such as Dentaria glandulosa (Brassicaceae), Symphytum cordata (Boraginaceae) and the fern Polystichum braunii (Dryopteridaceae) may be encountered.


Coldea, G., Stoica, I-A., Puscas, M., Ursa, T. & Oprea, A. 2009. Alpine-sub alpine species richness of the Romanian Carpathians and the current conservation status of are species. Biodiversity and Conservation, 18: 1441-1458.

Ellenberg, H. 1988. Vegetation Ecology of Central Europe. Cambridge University Press.

Favarger, C. 1972. Endemism in the montane floras of Europe. In: Taxonomy, Phytogeography and Evolution. Ed. D. H. Valentine. Academic Press.