Southeastern Australian Eucalyptus Forests of Great Dividing Range

These forests are dominated by various cold-adapted Eucalyptus species including E. dalrymplean, E. oblique, E. ovata, E. pauciflora, E. stellulata and the endemic E. andrewsii, E. caliginosa, E. campanulata, E. eugenioides, E. glaucescens, E. laeopinea, E. ligustrina, E. macrorhyncha, E. moorei, E. novo-anglica and E. youmanii (Myrtaceae). Some can be found throughout the range while others are concentrated into certain areas. The main factors influencing these distributions seem to be frost intensity, mean annual rainfall, soil fertility and levels of soil water logging. The shrub layers vary and tend to be poorly developed. In the Northern Tablelands in Eucalypus pauciflora forest they include Acacia melanoxylon, Tasmannnia lanceolata and the endemic Gaultheria appressa (Ericaceae). In Eucalypus obliqua forest there is a discontinuous shrub layer comprising Hakea eriantha, Leucopogon lanceolatus, Olearia nerstii and the endemic Senecio linearifolius (Asteraceae), while in Eucalypus youmannii forest the main species are Acacia pruinosa, Brachyloma daphnoides, Dillwynia sericea, Dodonaea viscosa, Lissanthe strigosa, Melichrus urceolaris, Monotoca scoparia, Olearia microphylla and the endemic of near endemic Correa reflexa (Rutaceae). In Eucalypus ovata forests in the Southern Tablelands there is a discontinuous layer of tall shrubs with species like Acacia pycnantha, Banksia marginata, Bursaria spinosa and Casuarina stricta. In coastal areas these forest also include various endemic eucalypts such as Eucalypus crenulata, E. negecta and E. yarraensis as underlayer species. The herbaceous layers of these forests also vary from site to site but may include grasses such as Danthonia nudiflora and Poa hiemata and the endemic forb Celmisia longifolia (Asteraceae).

Southeastern Australian Eucalyptus Forests of the Upland-Coastal Zone

These forests comprise various local dominants, which vary with latitude. They include Eucalyptus acmenoides, E. baileyana, E. bancroftii, E. gummifera, E. intermedia, E. nigra, E. planchoniana, E. racemosa and E. signata. The soils in this zone tend to be of low fertility and this is reflected in the under story species, which mainly comprise xeromorphic elements. The shrub layer assemblage varies but may include Alphitonia excelsa, Bossiaea rhombifolia, Lambertia formosa, Persoonia cornifolia, Tristania conferta and endemic species like Banksia asplenifolia and Isopogon anemonifolius (Proteaceae). Herbs and dwarf shrubs form a varied and often discontinuous layer and may include Alloteropsis semialata, Caustis blakei, Dampiera stricta, Fimbristylis dichotoma, Haemadorum planifolia, Hypoxis glabella, Lepidosperma laterale, Stylidium graminifolium, Themeda australis and the endemic Xanthorrhoea macromema (Xanthorrhoeaceae). The flora of these forests, however, is of major significance since its represents the largest assemblage of xeromorphic species in the east. Most of the plant genera are endemic to Australia and there are a number of noteworthy local endemics such as Atkinsonia ligustrina (Loranthaceae) a root parasite confined to the Blue Mountains and the giant ‘gymea lily’ Doryanthes excelsa (Doryanthaceae) confined to the coast north and south of Sidney. Gymosperms are represented by Macrozamia secunda in the Blue Mountains and Macrozamia communis and M. spiralis on the coast. Podocarpus spinulosa occurs in valleys and the endemic Callitris muelleri (Cupressaceae) is relatively widespread.  Pteridophytes are also well represented especially by primitive genera such as Leptopteris, Lycopodium, Psilotum, Selaginella, Schizaea and Todea.


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