Included here are much of the upland parts of the Arabian Peninsula including Asir, Hadramawt and most of Yemen, but not the mountains of Oman.

South Arabian Upland Acacia-Commiphora Woodland

On the Yemen escarpment these woodlands are dominated by species of Acacia such as Acacia asak and A. mellifera and several Commiphora species like the endemic Commiphora kataf and C. myrrha (Burseraceae). Associated trees include Adina microcephala, Cordia abyssinica and Terminalia brownii, while the many shrubs include Ziziphus spina-christi and the endemic or near endemic taxa Euphorbia balsamifera subsp. adenensis (Euphorbiaceae), Dracaena serrulata (Dracaenaceae) and Psiadia arabica (Asteraceae).

South Arabian Montane Juniper Woodland

Outside Africa, these Juniperus procera dominated woodlands, are confined to the Asir Mountains. They form a belt usually between about altitudes of 1400 m and 2500 m, and the trees are typically festooned with the lichen Usnea articulata. The understory, which is usually fairly open, is characterised by species such as Asparagus africanus, Clutia myricoides, Conyza incana, Lavendula dentata and the endemic or near endemic Euryops arabicus (Asteraceae). Other associated species include Alkanna orientalis, Anthemis tigrensis, and the endemic or near endemic Nepeta defersiana (Lamiaceae).


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