Included here are the Andes, the Coastal Cordillera of Chile and the Córdoba Mountains of central Argentina. The Central Andes comprises two parallel mountain chains separated by a wide, high plateau known as the altiplano.

Southern Andean Evergreen Temperate Rainforest

These include a variety of woodland types characteristic of the Coastal Range (Coastal Cordillera). They were also present in the Coastal Depression between the Coastal Range and Andean Mountains before large-scale deforestation took place.  Examples include the famous Valdivian Forests, centred on the town of Valdivia but extending some 250 km from the Tolten River to south of the Llico River, the forests of the Nahuelbuta Range between the Bio-Bio River and the Imperial River, and the forests of the Chiloe Archipelago. The dominant tree species may include Drimys winteri, Eucryphia cordifolia, Nothofagus dombeya, N. obliqua (one of the few deciduous species), Laurelia philippiana, L. sempervirens and Persea lingua together with several endemic species, such as Aextoxicon punctatum (Aextoxicaceae), Weinmannia trichosperma (Cunoniaceae), and the near endemic conifer Saxegothaea conspicua (Podocarpaceae). In poorly drained areas and by rivers two other endemic trees - Tepualia stipularis (Myrtaceae) and the conifer Pilgerodendron unifera (Cupressaceae) may predominate. Other less conspicuous endemic trees and shrubs are Caldcluvia paniculata (Cunoniaceae), Peumus boldus (Monimiaceae), Pseudopanax laetevirens, P. valdiviensis (Araliaceae), and Quillaja saponaria (Rosaceae). These forests also support a wide range of lianas and epiphytic species including several endemic species such as Asteranthera ovata, Mitraria coccinea, Sarmienta repens (Gesneriaceae), Boquila trifoliata (Lardizabalaceae), Elytropus chilensis (Apocynaceae), Lapageria rosea (Luzuriagaceae)and Philesia magellanica (Philesiaceae). Also of interest among these is the endemic temperate bromeliad Fascicularia bicolor (Bromeliaceae). Among the many ground layer species is the large endemic fern Blechnum chilense (Blechnaceae), but many of the endemic vascular plants have very narrow ranges. For example, Haplopappus nahuelbutae (Asteraceae) and Mutisia araucana (Asteraceae) are confined to the Nahuebuta Range. These uplands also provide refuge for the last remaining population of endemic vine Berberidopsis corallina (Berberidopsidaceae). This genus is of considerable biogeographical interest because of its closeness to the Australian genus Streptothamnus.

Southern Andean Fitzroya Forest

These forests, dominated by the near endemic conifer Fitzroya cupressoides (Cupressaceae) are confined to southern Chile and adjacent parts of Argentina. Fitzroya cupressoides can reach heights of up to 50 m, and is one of the longest-lived trees in the World with a life span of up to 3600 years. Remaining forests occur throughout the Coastal Cordillera, the Andean Cordillera and the Central Depression, although only remnant stands occur in the latter. Fortunately the Chilean Government has now declared every living Fitzroya tree a “National Monument”. In the near natural forests of the Central Depression Fitzroya is overwhelmingly dominant, but the endemic or near endemic Caldcluvia paniculata (Cunoniaceae) and Crinodendron hookerianum (Elaeocarpaceae) are abundant sub-canopy trees. Others may include Amomyrtus luma, Eucryphia cordifolia, Gevuina avellana, Lomatia ferruginea, Nothofagus dombeyi, Podocarpus nubigena and the endemic or near endemic Drimys winteri (Winteraceae), Nothofagus nitida (Nothofagaceae), Tepualia stipularis (Myrtaceae) and Weinmannia trichosperma (Cunoniaceae). Under storey shrubs typically include Gaultheria phillyreifolia, Pernettya insana and the endemic or near endemic Philesia magellanica (Philesiaceae). Other shrubs may include Desfontainia spinosa, Myrteola nummularia, Myrceugenia parviflora, Ugni molinae and the endemic Pseudopanax laetevirens (Araliaceae). Lianas are also an interesting feature with species such as Griselina racemosa, Luzuriaga radicans and the endemic Campsidium valdivianum (Bignoniaceae), Luzuriaga polyphylla (Philesiaceae) and Mitraria coccinea (Gesneraceae). The ground layer comprises many ferns especially species of Blechnum (such as Blechnum chilense) and Hymenophyllum species, and a variety of herbaceous flowering plants. The latter include Chusquea macrostachya, Cotula scariosa, Carex fuscula, Eliocharis pachycarpa, Juncus lesveuri, Nertera granadensis, Plantago truncata, Shoenus rhynchosporoides and Uncinia erinacea. Other endemic species recorded in mountain forests include shrubs such as Myoschilos oblonga (Santalaceae), Ovida pillo-pillo (family?) and Ugni candollei (Myrtaceae), and herbaceous species such as Fascicularia bicolor (Bromeliaceae).

Southern Andean Subalpine Nothofagus Forest

Many of these forests are dominated by the south Andean deciduous tree Nothofagus pumilio, but the endemic or near endemic Nothofagus antarctica (Nothofagaceae) may supercede it as the dominant species in places. Associated trees may include other endemic species like Araucaria araucana (Araucariaceae) and Nothofagus macrocarpa (Nothofagaceae) although the latter is restricted to the northernmost forest. Araucaria araucana mainly occurs in the drier zones. This ancient conifer is one of the longest-lived trees in South America and can on occasion reach age of up to 1000 years. Beneath the tree canopy there is often a shrubs layer with species such as Azara alpina, Berberis montana, Escallonia alpina, Maytenus disticha, Pernettya pumila, Ribes magellanicum together with endemics like Berberis rotundifolia (Berberidaceae), Myoschilos oblonga (Santalaceae), while typical ground layer species include Acaena splendens, Astragalus berterii, Dioscorea brachybothrya, Gamochaeta stachydifolia, Perezia nutans, Senecio polygaloides and the endemic or near endemic Alstroemeria spathulata (Alstroemeriaceae), Chaetanthera chilensis (Asteraceae), Codonorchis lessonii (Orchidaceae), Hieracium chilense (Asteraceae) and Senecio eruciformis (Asteraceae). The undergrowth may also include the South American bamboos Chusquea culeou and C. montana. Vines, such as the endemic Cynanchum nummularifolium (Apocynaceae) may be present and Nothofagus trees may support the hemiparasitic shrubs Misodendron linearifolium and M. oblongifolium. At altitudes ranging from 2000 m in the north to 600 m in the south such as on Navarino Island (in the Magellanian BioProvince), these forest reach their altitudinal limit but rather than displaying an abrupt change there is often a transition to the treeless alpine vegetation known as the Krummholz where trees become stunted and twisted forming an elfin-type forest zone. Here the main species is again usually Nothofagus pumilio but may also include N. antarctica or N. macrocarpa. At these elevation N. antarctica can become shrub-like, but N. pumilio seems to be the best adapted to these harsh upland conditions. It is helped by the fact that it is deciduous, but it is also one of the most cold tolerant tree species in southern South America. Other characteristic species of the krummholz include shrubs like Azara alpina, Maytenus disticha, Myoschiloa oblonga, Pernettya pumila, Rubus geoides and herbs such as the endemic orchid Codonorchis lessonii (Orchidaceae) and the endemic or near endemic Adenocaulon chilense (Asteraceae). Throughout these forests many other endemic or near endemic taxa may be encountered. Among the shrub flora are Chiliotrichum diffusum (Asteraceae) and Ovida andina (family?), forbs include Macrachaenium gracilis (Asteraceae) and Quinchamalium chilense (Schoepfiaceae), while a grass example is Ortachne rariflora (Poaceae).

Central Andean Polylepis Forest

Polylepis (Rosaceae) is only found in the South American Andes, and represents the characteristic taxa of the highest forests in the world. Twenty species of Polylepis are trees or shrubs and typically have a very gnarled appearance. The foliage is evergreen with dense, small leaves, and most of the species are exposed to harsh climatic conditions. They belong to the tribe Sanguisorbae, which mainly include herbs and small shrubs, and unique in the rose family in having a tendency towards wind pollination. The most primitive species, including Polylepis lanuginosa, P. multijuga and P. pauta, found in the Ceja se selva (Yungas) forest share traits with the genus Acaena (see the Chacoan BioProvince).. 

In the Central Andes, unique forests of Polylepis tomentella and P. tarapacana are found, for example, around the Sajama Volcano at 5000 m above sea level in Bolivia, and there are stands of Polylepis tomentella in the puna belt of the Laguna de Pozuelos Biosphere Reserve in northwest Argentina, while Polylepis besseri (= P. rugulosa) is the main species found on the southern slopes of the Nevado Coropuna volcano in southern Peru. Most forests are encountered at altitudes ranging from about 3700-4600 m and seem to generally occur where there are high incidences of fog or cloud cover or in river gorges.  However, in some places they can cover entire slopes where there are no particularly favourable environmental conditions. The trees are often festooned with mosses, vines such as Bomarea, Loasa, Mutisia, and Passiflora, mistletoes (Tristerix) and many epiphytic flowering plants. At ground level, often between moss-covered rocks, there is often a rich herbaceous flora, which on deep soils may include various nitrophilous plants like Cajophora and Urtica and several species of wild potatoes (Solanum).  In the more arid stands, however, the undergrowth often hardly differs from the surrounding steppe or semi desert. On the Nevado Coropuna volcano, for example, the undergrowth is characterised by species Baccharis, Chuquiraga, Parastrephia (Asteraceae), Astragalus, Lupinus (Fabaceae) and various cacti.  Other species often associated with these high-Andean Polylepis forests include Berberis chrysacantha, Berberis communtata, Berberis rariflora, Bomarea dulcis, Citharexylum punctatum, Colletia spinosissima, Dunalia brachyacantha, Fuchsia apatala, Gynoxis asterotrichia, Ribes brachybotrys, Satureja boliviana and Schinus microphyllus.

Northern Andean Montane Forest

Andean mountain forests are major centres of biodiversity with large numbers of endemic and restricted range species. In Ecuador alone they harbour more than 16,000 vascular plants – 40% more than the total number for Europe. In terms of species composition they can be broadly divided into lower and upper montane forests. In Ecuador’s Reserva Floristica Rio Guajalito between 1800-2000 m, the lower or sub-montane forests have a clear stratification in terms of plant family composition. Cyatheaceae (tree ferns), Melastomataceae and Rubiaceae dominate the lower stratum with species such as Palicourea ovalis and the endemic Cyathea caracasana var. boliviensis (Cyatheaceae). Important mid-canopy families are Euphorbiaceae, Lauraceae and Rubiaceae with species such as Guarea kunthiana and the endemic Cybianthus peruvianus (Myrsinaceae) and Elaegia utilis (Rubiaceae). The main upper-canopy families are Euphorbiaceae, Meliaceae and Myrtaceae with species such as Bombacopsis squamigera, Cedrela odorata and the endemic Myrcianthus rophaloides (Myrtaceae). Other endemic trees and shrubs of these forests include Billia colombiana (Hippocastanaceae), Cecropia maxima (Cecropiaceae), Nectandia obtusata, Ocotea rugusa (Laureaceae), Meriana acostae, Miconia dapsiliflora (Melastomataceae), Ruagea tomentosa (Meliaceae) and Sepium verum (Euphorbiaceae). Upper montane forest sometimes referred to as ‘Andean Forest’ can be found at elevation ranging from 2000-2900 m. In Ecuador’s Parque Nacional Podocarpus, the dominant tree families in ranked order are Melastomataceae, Cunoniaceae, Ternstroemiaceae, Lauraceae, Celastraceae, Myrsinaceae, Rubiaceae, Aquifoliaceae, Symplocaceae and Araliaceae. Tree species of particular importance are Laplacea speciosa and the endemic Cyathea caracasana (Cyatheaceae) and Weinmannia glabra (Cunoniaceae). Other important endemic trees and shrubs include Critoniopsis sevillana (Asteraceae), Graffenreida harlingii, Meriana furvanthera, Miconia caelata (Melastomataceae), Hedyosmum purpurascens (Chloranthaceae), Orthaea fimbriata (Ericaceae), Persea campii (Lauraceae), Symplocos canescens (Symplocaceae) and Vallea ecuadorensis (Elaeocarpaceae). Average tree height is about 7.5 m but some trees grow to about 16 m. However, there does not appear to be a clear stratification. The ground layer consists of a dense tangle of herbs, slender shrubs, root climbers and bamboos, and the epiphytic flora is particularly rich with numerous mosses, ferns and orchids. There are also a number of parasitic shrubs including the primitive, endemic mistletoe Gaiadendron punctatum (Loranthaceae).

Northern Andean Dwarf Polylepis Forest

The arborescent genus Polylepis (Rosaceae) is endemic the high tropical Andes. Palynalogical studies show that the genus has been established in the Andes for at least 2.7 million years, and certain species are considered to grow at altitudes higher than any other arborescent angiosperm in the World. They can on occasion be found growing at elevations up to 5200 m. There are 15 species altogether including Polylepis lanuginosa, P. reticulata and P. weberbaueri in the Ecuadorian Andes. Polylepis quadrijuga is endemic to the Colombian Cordillera Oriental where it forms dwarf forests. These are especially well developed on the western Magdalena slopes and grow, for example, as isolated patches in montane grasslands or on boulder scree. Commonly associated species include the endemic Galium canescens (Rubiaceae), Miconia andina (Melastomataceae), Niphogeton ternata (Apiaceae) and Senecio formosus (Asteraceae). Other less common endemic includes Peperomia hartwegii (Piperaceae). An interesting austral-antarctic element is represented by the Dysopsis glechomoides (Euphorbiaceae). It also occurs in the temperate forests of Chile and Juan Fernandez.

Northern Andean Dwarf Hesperomeles Forest

Isolated stands of dwarf forest dominated by endemic genus Hesperomeles (Rosaceae) have been recorded in various parts of the high tropical Andes. Wet forest of Hesperomeles lanuginosa can be found, for example, in the timberline zone at 3700-3750 m in the Colombian Cordillera Central and on the Páramo of Barragán.

Northern Andean Dwarf Escallonia Forest

Dwarf forest dominated by the endemic Escallonia myrtilloides (Escalloniaceae) occurs throughout the high tropical Andes. In the Colombian Cordillera Oriental, it ranges from about 2650-3750 m altitude and stands have been recorded along cloud forest timberlines. Common associates include endemic woody taxa such as Acnistus quitoensis (Solanaceae), Chusquea scandens (Poaceae), Espeletia tapirophila (Asteraceae), Euphorbia salicifolium, E. tinifolium (Euphorbiaceae), Miconia cleefii, M. salicifolia (Melastomataceae) and endemic herbaceous species like Calceolaria penlandii (Calceolariaceae) and Rumex tolimensis (Polygonaceae). However, in well-developed forests, such as those in the Ecuadorian Cordillera Occidental, Escallonia myrtilloides can form almost pure stands.

Northern Andean Dwarf Gaultheria Forest

Ericaceous dwarf forest dominated by the endemic Gaulthera ramosissima (Ericaceae) together with the endemic Aragoa perez-arbelaeziana (Plantaginaceae) and various Asteraceae shrubs have been recorded in the Chorreras Valley on the western side of Páramo de Sumapaz at elevations of about 3750 m. The genus Aragoa has its main centre distribution in the Colombian Cordillera Oriental, and Aragoa perez-arbelaeziana is the only tree species in the genus. On the forest floor there is usually a dwarf shrub layer comprising various Vaccinium species and the endemic Disterigma empetrifolium (Ericaceae), while other endemic species such as Oxalis medicaginea (Oxalidaceae) are found in the field layer. At ground level, a thick mat of liverworts often covers the litter, and the trees are usually festooned in a rich epiphytic flora mainly comprising the bryophyte Frullania and the lichen Usnea. This is a clear indication of wet atmospheric conditions which here is mainly caused by fog.

Northern Andean Dwarf Gynoxys Forest

Usually occurring as isolated stands in open páramo or on rocky slopes, dwarf forest dominated by various endemic species of Gynoxys (Rosaceae) can be found throughout the high tropical Andes. Gynoxys albivestita dwarf forests occur in the Sierra Nevada del Cocuy between 3900-4000 m. The trees can reach heights of 8 m and are usually associated with the endemic Acnistus quitoensis (Solanaceae), Solanum bogotensis (Solanaceae) and Valeriana arborea (Valerianaceae). In Páramo de Chisacá, Gynoxys subhirsuta becomes one of the dominant dwarf forest species. These forests occur on boulders at the base of steep wet cliffs at the southern end of Lake Laguna Negra. Associated species include various hygrophytic bryophytes such as Sphagnum magellanicum and a selection of endemic vascular plants like Myrrhidendron glaucescens (Apiaceae). Other Gynoxys species include G. hirsuta, G. paramuna, G. subcinerea and G. trianae and several can form communities in their own right.


Anon. 1996. Habitats of South America. Institute of Terrestrial Ecology and Intitut Royal Des Sciences Naturelles De Belgique.

Arroyo, M. T. K, Riveros, M., Penaloza, A., Cavieres, L. & Faggi, A. M. 1996. Phytogeographic relationships and regional richness patterns of the cool temperate rainforest flora of southern South America. In: High-Latitude Rainforests and Associated Ecosystems of the west coast of the Americas. Eds. R. G. Lawford, P. B. Alaback and E. Fuentes. Springer.

Beck, S.G., 1985. Florula ecológica de Bolivia: Puna semiárida en el Altiplano Boliviano. Ecología en Bolivia, 6: 1-41.

Bogh, A. 1992. Composition and distribution of the vascular epiphytes flora of an Ecuadorian montane rain forest. Selbyana, 13: 25-34.

Borchsenius, F. 1997. Patterns plant species diversity in Ecuador. Biodiversity and Conservation, 6: 379-399.

Brako, L & Zarucchi, J. 1993. Catalogue of the flowering plants and gymnosperms of Peru. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Cabrera, A.L.1968. Ecologia vegetal de la puna. In: Geoecology of the mountainous regions of the tropical Americas. Ed. C. Troll. Colloquium Geographicum Vol. 9, Ferd. Dummerlers Verlag, Bonn.

Cleef, A. M. 1979. The phytogeographical position of the neotropical vascular Paramo flora with special references to the Colombian Cordillera Oriental. In: Tropical Botany. Eds. K. Larsen and L. B. Holm-Nielsen. Academic Press.

Cuatrecasas, J. 1968. Paramo vegetation and its life forms. In: Geo-Ecology of the Mountainous Regions of Tropical Americas. Ed. C. Troll. Proceedings of the UNESCO Mexican Symposium 1966. Verlag

Davis, S. D., V. H. Heywood, O. Herrera-MacBryde, J. Villa-Lobos & A. C. Hamilton. 1997. Altoandina Argentina, Chile. Centres of plant diversity: A guide and strategy for their conservation, Vol. 3 The Americas. Eds. S.D. Davis, V.H. Heywood, O. Herrera-MacBryde, J. Villa-Lobos and A C. Hamilton IUCN, WWF, Oxford, UK. Donoso, C. 1996. Ecology of Nothofagus Forests in Central Chile. In: The Ecology and Biogeography of Nothofagus Forest. Eds. T. T. Veblen, R. S. Hill and J. Read. Yale University Press.

Donoso, C., Grez, R. & Sandoval, V. 1990. Caracterización del tipo forestal alerce. Bosque, 11: 21-34.

Donoso, C., Sandoval, V., Grez, R. & Rodriguez, J. 1993. Dynamics of Fitzroya cupressoides forests in southern Chile. Journal of Vegetation Science, 4: 303-312.

Fajardo, A. & Alaback, P. 2005. Effects of natural and human disturbance on the dynamics and spatial structure of Nothofagus glauca in south-central Chile. Journal of Biogeography, 32: 1811-1825.

Fjeldså, J. & Kessler, M. 1996. Conserving the biological diversity of Polylepis woodlands of the highland of Peru and Bolivia. A contribution to sustainable natural resource management in the Andes. NORDECO, Copenhagen.

Forero, E. 1988. Botanical exploration and phytogeography of Colombia: past, present and future. Taxon, 37: 561-566.

Franco-Rosselli, P., Betancur, J. & Fernandez-Alonso, J. L. 1997. Diveridad floristica en dos bosques subandinos del sur de Colombia. Caldasia, 19: 205-234.

Fraver, S., González, M. E., Silla, F. & Lara, A. 1999. Composition and structure of remnant Fitzroya cupressoides forest of southern Chile’s central depression. Journal of Torrey Botanical Society, 126: 49-57.

Galán de Mera, A., Cáceres, C. & González, A. 2003. La vegetación de la alta montana andina del sur del Peru. Acta Botanica Malacitana, 28: 121–147.

Godley, E. J. 1960. The botany of southern Chile in relation to New Zealand and the subantarctic islands. The Royal Society Expedition to Southern Chile. Proceedings of the Royal Society, 152: 447-457.

Grubb, P. J., Lloyd, J. R., Pennington, T. D. & Whitmore, T. C. 1963. A comparison of montane and lowland rain forest in Ecuador. Journal of Ecology, 51: 567-601.

Hammen, T. van der. 1979. History of the flora, vegetation and climate in the Colombian Cordillera Oriental during the last five million years. In: Tropical Botany. Eds. K. Larsen and L. B. Holm-Nielsen. Academic Press.

Hammen, T. van der. & Cleef, A. M. 1986. Development of the high Andean paramo flora and vegetation. In: High Altitude Tropical Biogeography. Eds. F. Vuilleumier and M. Monasterio. Oxford University Press and American Museum of Natural History.

Harling. G. 1979. The vegetation types of Ecuador a brief survey. In: Tropical Botany. Eds. K. Larsen and L. B. Holm-Nielsen. Academic Press.

Herrmann, T. M. 2006. Indigenous knowledge and management of Araucaria araucana forest in the Chilean Andes: implications for native forest conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation, 15: 647-662.

Jorgenson, P. M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds). 1999. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Gardens, 75: 1-1169.

Jorgenson, P. M. & Ulloa, C. U. 1994. Seed plants of the high Andes of Ecuador – a checklist. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark. AAU Reports 34.

Jorgenson, P. M., Ulloa, C. U., Madsen, J. E. & Valencia, R. 1995. A floristic analysis of the High Andes of Equador. In: Biodiversity and Conservation of Neotropical Montane Forests. Eds. S. P. Churchill, H. Balslev, E. Forero and J. L. Luteyn. The New York Botanical Garden.

Kessler, M. 2002. The elevational gradient of Andean plant endemism: varying influences of taxon-specific traits and topography at different taxonomic levels. Journal of Biogeography, 29: 1159-1165.

Krömer, T., Kessler, M., Gradstein, S. R. & Acebey, A. 2005. Diversity patterns of vascular epiphytes along an elevation gradient in the Andes. Journal of Biogeography, 32: 1799-1809.

Kuper, W., Kreft, H., Neider, J., Koster, N. & Barthlott, W. 2004. Large-scale diversity patterns of vascular epiphytes in Neotropical montane rain forests. Journal of Biogeography, 31: 1477-1487.

Luebert, F. & Gajardo, R. 2005. Vegetacion alto andina de Parinacota (norte de Chile) y una sinopsis de la vegetacion de la Puna meridional. Phytocoenologia, 35: 79–128.

Madsen, J. E. & Øllgaard, B. 1994. Floristic composition, structure, and dynamics of an upper montane rain forest in Southern Ecuador. Nordic Journal of Botany, 14: 403-423.

McQueen, D. R. 1977. The ecology of Nothofagus and associated vegetation in South America. Part II: The mid latitude forests of Chile. Tuatara, 22: 233-244.

Navarro, G., Molina, J. A. & De la Barra, N. 2005. Classification of the high-Andean Polylepis forest in Bolivia. Plant Ecology, 176: 113-130.

Neider, J. & Barthlott, W. 2001. The flora of Rio Guajalito mountain rain forest (Ecuador). Volkswagen Foundation.

Ollgaard, B. 1979. Lycopodium in Ecuador  Habits and Habitats. In: Tropical Botany. Eds. K. Larsen and L. B.  Holm-Nielsen. Academic Press.

Pollmann, W. & Hildebrand, R. 2005. Structure and the composition of species in the timberline ecotones of the southern Andes. In: Mountain Ecosystems. Studies in Treeline Ecology. Eds. G. Broll and B. Keplin. Springer.

Rundel, P. W. & Weisser, P. J. 1975. La Campana, A new national park in central Chile. Biological Conservation, 8: 35-46.

Sarmiento, F. O. 1995. Human Impacts on the Cloud Forests of the Upper Guayllabamba River Basin, Ecuador, and Suggested Management Responses. In: Tropical Montane Cloud Forests. Eds.  L. S. Hamilton, J. O. Juvik and F. N. Scatena. Ecological Studies 10. Springer-Varlag.

Scottsberg. C. 1960. Remarks on the plant geography of the southern cold temperate zone. The Royal Society Expedition to Southern Chile. Proceedings of the Royal Society, 152: 447-457.

Sklenár, P. 2006. Searching for altitudinal zonation: species distribution and vegetation composition in the superpáramo of Volcán Iliniza, Ecuador. Plant Ecology, 184: 337-350.

Smith, D. N. & Killeen, T. J. 1998. A comparison of the structure and composition of montane and lowland tropical forest in the Serranía Pilón Lajas, Beni, Bolivia. In: Forest biodiversity in North, Central and South America and the Caribbean. Eds. F. Dallmeier and J. A. Comiskey. Man and the Biosphere Series, Vol. 21. The Parthenon Publishing Group.

Smith-Ramirez, C. 2004. The Chilean coastal range: a vanishing centre of biodiversity and endemism in South American temperate rainforests. Biodiversity and Conservation, 13: 373-393.

Smith-Ramirez, C., Diaz, I., Pliscoff, P., Valdovinos, C., Méndez, M. A. Larrain, J. & Samaniego, H. 2007. Distribution patterns of flora and fauna in southern Chilean Coastal rain forests: Integrating Natural History and GIS. Biodiversity and Conservation, 16: 2627-2648.

Steyermark, J. A. 1979. Plant refuge and dispersal centres in Venezuela: their relict and endemic elements. In: Tropical Botany. Eds. K. Larsen and L. B. Holm-Nielsen. Academic Press.

Torre-Cuadros, M. D. L. A. L., Herrando-Pérez, S. & Young, K. R. 2007. Diversity and structural patterns for tropical montane and premontane forests of central Peru, with an assessment of the use of higher-taxon surrogacy. Biodiversity and Conservation, 16: 2965-2988.

Valencia, R, R. 1995. Composition and structure of an Andean forest fragment in eastern Ecuador. In: Biodiversity and Conservation of Neotropical Montane Forests. Eds. S. P. Churchill, H. Balslev, E. Forero and J. L. Luteyn. The New York Botanical Garden.

Valencia, R., Balslev, H., Palacios, W., Neill, D., Josse, C., Tirada, M. & Skov, F. 1998. Diversity and family composition of trees in different regions of Ecuador: a sample of 18 one-hectare plots. In: Forest biodiversity in North, Central and South America and the Caribbean. Eds. F. Dallmeier and J. A. Comiskey. Man and the Biosphere Series, Vol. 21. The Parthenon Publishing Group.

Veblen, T. T., Delmastro, R. J. & Schlatter, J. E. 1976. The conservation of Fitzroya cupressoides and its environment in southern Chile. Environmental Conservation, 3: 291-301.

Veblen, T. T., Donoso, C., Schlegel, F. M. & Escobar, B. R. 1981. Forest dynamics in south-central Chile. Journal of Biogeography, 8: 211-247.

Veblen, T. T., Schlegel, F. M. & Oltremari, J. V. 1983. Temperate broad-leaved evergreen forests of South America. In: Ecosystems of the World 10 - Temperate Broad-Leaved Evergreen Forests. Elsevier.

Werff, H. Van Der. & Consiglio, T. 2004. Distribution and conservation significance of endemic species of flowering plants in Peru. Biodiversity and Conservation, 13: 1699-1713.

Young, K. R. 1998. Composition and structure of a timberline forest in north-central Peru. In: Forest biodiversity in North, Central and South America and the Caribbean. Eds. F. Dallmeier and J. A. Comiskey. Man and the Biosphere Series, Vol. 21. The Parthenon Publishing Group.