Included here is a zone mostly between 500-700 km wide extending from the Sudan-Ethiopian border westwards to the Atlantic coast of Senegal. In the north it includes the very dry Nubian Desert.

Sudanian Dry Grassland

In the lowlands, grasslands are usually dominated by various Aristida species on lithsols, while Schoenefeldia gracilis and Sehima ishaemoides are the main species on clay soils. Other species become dominant in upland grasslands. For example, on the volcanic ash slopes of Jebel Marra, Andropogon distachyas together with Hypaurhenia hirta and Themeda triandra are some of the more characteristic species. These grassy slopes also provide habitat for various perennial herbs such as Campanula edulis, and the endemic Felicia dentata subsp. nubica (Asteraceae) and Kickxia aegyptiaca subsp. virgata (Fabaceae). On the flatter areas and upland plains a type of meadow can be found dominated by the attractive, golden-headed Hypaurhenia multiplex. These grasslands are made additionally colourful by the reddish-purple flowers of Geranium ocellatum and Erodium malacoides, the electric-blue Cyanotis barbata and the white, woolly capitula of the endemic Gnaphalium marranum (Asteraceae). Other species include orchids such as Habenaria filicornis, H. humilior and Satyrium coriophoroides.


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