Included here is the Indus Plain comprising the Province of Sind (Pakistan), the plains of Punjab, the Thar Desert, Hariana, western Rajasthan and Northern Gujarat.

Sindian Mobile Sand Dune Formations

Sand dunes are one of the characteristic features of this BioProvince. Their topography varies from undulating to moderately steep and dunes can reach elevations of up to 120 m. They also have free drainage and so tend to be very barren. In the Nara Desert, a study of sand dune vegetation distinguished between crest habitat and slope / flank habitat. In the former only psammophytes or sand-loving plants were able to survive. These included Aerva javanica, Aristida adscensionis, A. funiculata, Cyperus arenarius, C. conglomeratus, Dipterygium glaucum, Indigofera argentea, Limeum indicum, Stipagrostis plumosa, Tribulus longipetalis and the endemic or near endemic Calligonum polygonoides (Polygonaceae), Lasiurus sindicus, Panicum turgida (Poaceae) and Crotolaria burhia (Fabaceae). Dune flanks and slopes also support many of the above-mentioned psammophytes but also include a few trees such as Capparis decidua, Salvadora oleodes, Tamarix aphylla and the endemic Prosopis cineraria (Mimosaceae).


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