Included here is Sulawesi (formerly Celebes) and its neighbouring islands.

Sulawesian Peatswamp Forest

The only major area of peatswamp on Sulawesi is the Aopa Swamp 100 km west of Kenderi. In the undisturbed areas these rich forests reaching heights of up to 35 m. Strangling figs are common, while other trees include Artocarpus teysmannii, Baeckia frutescens, Calophyllum soulattri, Diospyros malabarica, Geunsia paloensis, Hopea gregaria, Premna foetida and Saccopetalum horsfieldii. There are also many palms including species of Arenga and Livistona and climbers are common. Epiphytes, on the other hand, are comparatively rare, but the undergrowth includes a varied assemblage of herbaceous species.


Meijer, W. 1976. Botanical Explorations in Celebes and Bali. National Geographic Society Research Reports, 60: 583-605.

Steenis, C. G. G. J. van. 1957. Outline of the vegetation types in Indonesia and some adjacent regions. Proceedings of the Pacific Scientific Congress, 8: 61-97.

Whitmore, T. C. & Sidiyasa, K. 1986. Composition and structure of a lowland rain forest at Toraut, northern Sulawesi. Kew Bulletin, 41: 747-756.

Whitten, A. J., Mustafa, M. & Henderson, G. S. 1987. The Ecology of Sulawesi. Gadjah Mada University Press.