Included here is New Zealand (North and South islands), Stewart Island and a multitude of smaller islands.

Neozeylandic Dacrydium colensoi (silver fir) Bog Forest

Bog forests dominated by Dacrydium colensoi are largely confined to the volcanic plateau district in the Mount Raupehu areas of North Island and the western lowlands of the Southern Alps. Associated trees include Podocarpus hallii and the endemic Libocedrus bidwillii (Cupressaceae) and Phylocladus alpinus (Phyllocladaceae). The canopy reaches no more than about 12 m in height, but there is usually dense undergrowth up to 3 m tall. This commonly includes endemic species like Alseuosmia quercifolia (Alseuosmiaceae), Coprosma foetidissima (Rubiaceae), Gahnia pauciflora (Cyperaceae) and Weinmannia racemosa (Cunoniaceae). 

Neozeylandic Dacrydium intermediate (yellow pine) Bog Forest

Extending much further south than Dacrydium colensoi forest, these forests occur in the upland areas of North Island and in the northwestern and fiord districts of South Island, but show their best development on Stewart Island. A characteristic feature of these forests is their rich bryophyte flora, with many trees support giant cushions of the Dicranoloma billardieri and Plagiochila gigantea. There is also a profusion of bryophytes on the forest floor, which also typically includes tussocks of the endemic Gahnia procera (Cyperaceae). Ferns, including tree ferns, are uncommon, but the endemic Leptopteris superba (Osmundaceae) can be commonly found in wet gullies. Other endemic species that may be encountered in the undergrowth include Coprosma colensoi (Rubiaceae), Dracophyllum latifolium (Ericaceae) and Elaeocarpus hookerianus (Elaeocarpaceae).

Neozeylandic Sphagnum Bog

Sphagnum bogs in New Zealand are also usually distinguished by copious quantities of Gleichenium circinatum or G. alpina. They can be found, for example, on the west and south of South Island and in parts of Auckland. In places Cladium teretifolium or C. glomeratum are abundant, but in North Auckland and in the Waikato area the unusual bamboo-like endemic Sporodanthus traversii (Juncaceae) occurs often reaching heights of up to 3 m. Low-growing, creeping species of Lycopodium, such as Lycopodium ramulosum, can cover extensive areas, and in bare places or on the sphagnum itself, red rosettes of the insectivorous plant Drosera spathulata may be found. Several species of the insectivorous Utricularia are also common including U. novae-zelandia and the endemic U. delicatula (Lentibulariaceae). Bogs of South Otago and on Stewart Island are remarkable for the many mountain plants they support including several endemic species such as Astelia linearis (Asteliaceae), Celmisia argentea (Asteraceae), Geum leiospermum (Rosaceae), Gunnera prorepens (Gunneraceae), Oreobolus pectinatus (Cyperaceae) and the generic endemic Oreostylidium subulatum (Stylidiaceae). An interesting feature of this species of Gunnera is that its leaves can be almost black.

Southern Neozeylandic Coastal Moor

Confined to south of the South Otago and Stewart Island, this formation largely consists of creeping halophytes and coastal ferns requiring the peaty condition characteristic of the sub Antarctic climate and is regularly exposed to sea-spray. The most important plants are Asperula perpusilla, Cotula pulchella, Montia fontana, Myosotis pygmaea var. traillii, Plantago hamiltonii, Salicornia australis, Samolus aucklandicus and the endemic or near endemic Agrostis muscosa (Poaceae), Blechnum durum (Blechnaceae), Euphrasia repens (Scrophulariaceae) and Rumex neglectus  (Polygonaceae). Plant cover can be extremely dense and is often characterized by round, green, cushions of Euphrasia repens. In the flowering season, the endemic Gentianella saxosa (Gentianaceae) is often conspicuous. On flat sandy ground, west of the New River Estuary, there are transitions to dunes hallow vegetation, which includes endemic or near endemic species such as Acaena microphylla var. pauciglochidiata (Rosaceae), Gunnera arenaria (Gunneraceae) and Raoulia apice-nigra (Asteraceae).


Bell, C. J. E. 1973. Mountain soils and vegetation in the Owen Range, Nelson. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 11: 73-102.

Cockayne, L. 1958. The Vegetation of New Zealand. H. R. Engelmann (J. Cramer).

Laing, R. M. 1918. The vegetation of Banks Peninsula with a list of species (flowering-plants and ferns). Transactions of the New Zealand Institute, 51: 355-408.

Molloy, L. 1994. Wild New Zealand. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.