Included here is sub-antarctic Chile and a series of associated islands including the Falkland Islands, South Georgia Islands, South Sandwich Islands, South Orkney Islands and South Shetland Islands.

Magellanic Moorland

In the high rainfall areas in the western and southern parts of Tierra del Fuego there are a series of bog communities collectively known as Magellanic Moorland. Extensive areas of blanket peat characterize the zone, but the bogs can be broadly divided into two major types - cushion bog and graminoid bog. The former, as expected, comprises a dense, low covering of cushion plants such as Bolax caespitosa, Drapetes muscosus, Gaimordia australis together with endemics such as Caltha dioneifolia (Ranunculaceae) and Phyllachne uliginosa (Stylidaceae). Graminoid Bogs are principally composed of grass-like plants such as Schoenus antarcticus and the endemic Tetroncum magellanicum (Juncaginaceae). Some of the most consistently encountered associates of both these bogland types are Drosera uniflora, Gaultheria antarctica and the endemic Gunnera lobata (Gunneraceae) and Nanodea muscosa (Santalaceae).

Falkland Island Empetrum Heath

Most of the Falkland Islands are covered with either Cortaderia pilosa tussucks or Empetrum rubrum heath. The Empetrum heath is best developed in the comparatively dry areas, especially on the island’s many rocky ridges. Falkland endemics found here include Erigeron incertus (Asteraceae), Gnaphalium affine (Asteraceae) and Calandrinia feltonii (Portulacaceae) although the latter species may now be extinct. In the coastal areas, the heath also provides refuge for the Falkland endemics Arabis macloviana (Brassicaceae) and Nassauvia gaudichaudii (Asteraceae). In some of the more rocky areas the fern Blechnum magellanica can become co-dominant with Empetrum and in these areas the Falkland endemic Senecio vaginatus (Asteraceae) can be found.


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