Included here are the Atlantic islands of Madeira and Port Santo and the uninhabited Desertas and Salvage islands.

Madeiran Heath Forest

At altitudes above about 1300 m in the north and 1500 m in the south there is often a belt of heath forest characterized by the two tree heathers Erica arborea and the endemic Erica scoparia subsp. maderinicola (Ericaceae).  It reaches a height of about 4 m but is often stunted. Other typical species include small trees like the endemic Sorbus maderensis (Sambucaceae) and endemic shrubs like Teucrium francoi (Lamiaceae) and Vaccinium padifolium (Ericaceae). The endemic shield fern Polystichum falcinellum (Dryopteridaceae) is also very characteristic of these forests. Reasonably undisturbed examples of these forests can be found, for example, around Pico Ruivo.


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