Included here is most of Japan including Honshu, Kyushu, the southwestern part of Hokkaido, and the smaller islands of Gotto-retto, Tanega, Tsushima and Yaku.

Hokkaido Bogs

On acid peat bogs, the near endemic grass Moliniopsis japonica (Poaceae) is usually the dominant species. This species has similar ecological requirements to Europe’s Molinia caerulea. Associated species include Eleocharis japonica, Pogonia japonica and the fern Osmunda cinnamomea.


Kolbek, J., Srutek, M. & Box, E. O. 2003. Forest Vegetation in Northeast Asia. Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Numata, M. (ed). 1974. The flora and vegetation of Japan. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company.

Numata, M., Miyawaki, A. & Itow  D. 1972. Natural and semi-natural vegetation in Japan. Blumea, 20: 435-481.